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How to Analyze ACLs
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To analyze ACLs, follow these steps: 1. Create an instance of a class that inherits from NativeObjectSecurity, such as DirectorySecurity, FileSecurity, RegistrySecurity, or MutexSecurity. Several classes in the Microsoft.Win32 namespace include a GetAccessControl method for creating these objects. 2. Call the GetAccessRules method to retrieve an instance of AuthorizationRuleCollection. 3. Iterate through items in the AuthorizationRuleCollection instance to retrieve and analyze individual ACLs. The following code sample (which requires both the System.Security.AccessControl and System.Security.Principal namespaces) demonstrates how to display access rules (DACLs) for a folder; however, the same technique could be used to analyze a file, registry value, or other object:
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' VB ' You could also call Directory.GetAccessControl for the following line Dim ds As DirectorySecurity = New DirectorySecurity("C:\Program Files", _ AccessControlSections.Access) Dim arc As AuthorizationRuleCollection = ds.GetAccessRules(True, _ True, GetType(NTAccount)) For Each ar As FileSystemAccessRule In arc Console.WriteLine(ar.IdentityReference.ToString + ": " + _ ar.AccessControlType.ToString + " " + ar.FileSystemRights.ToString) Next // C# // You could also call Directory.GetAccessControl for the following line DirectorySecurity ds = new DirectorySecurity(@"C:\Program Files", AccessControlSections.Access); AuthorizationRuleCollection arc = ds.GetAccessRules(true, true, typeof(NTAccount)); foreach (FileSystemAccessRule ar in arc) Console.WriteLine(ar.IdentityReference + ": " + ar.AccessControlType + " " + ar.FileSystemRights);
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You can follow the same general procedure for other object types, though the specific classes you use to retrieve the object vary. For example, the following code sample (which requires the System.Security.AccessControl, System.Security.Principal, and Microsoft.Win32 namespaces) displays access rules for the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE registry key:
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' VB Dim rs As RegistrySecurity = Registry.LocalMachine.GetAccessControl Dim arc As AuthorizationRuleCollection = rs.GetAccessRules(True, _ True, GetType(NTAccount)) For Each ar As RegistryAccessRule In arc Console.WriteLine(ar.IdentityReference.ToString + ": " _ + ar.AccessControlType.ToString + " " + ar.RegistryRights.ToString) Next // C# RegistrySecurity rs = Registry.LocalMachine.GetAccessControl(); AuthorizationRuleCollection arc = rs.GetAccessRules(true, true, typeof(NTAccount)); foreach (RegistryAccessRule ar in arc) Console.WriteLine(ar.IdentityReference + ": " + ar.AccessControlType + " " + ar.RegistryRights);
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To analyze SACLs, follow the same steps, but call GetAuditRules instead of GetAccessRules, and substitute audit classes where necessary.
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How to Configure ACLs
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To configure ACLs, follow these steps: 1. Call the GetAccessControl method to get an instance of a class that inherits from NativeObjectSecurity, such as DirectorySecurity, FileSecurity, RegistrySecurity, or MutexSecurity. 2. Add or remove ACL entries from the object. Typically, you will provide a user or group name, an enumeration describing the rights (such as FileSystemRights or RegistryRights), and an AccessControlType enumeration specifying whether to allow or deny the rights. 3. Call the SetAccessControl method to apply the changes. The following code sample (which requires both the System.Security.AccessControl and System.IO namespaces) demonstrates how to add an access rule to a folder by granting the Guest user Read access to the C:\test folder. The same general technique could be used to add an ACL to a file, registry value, or other object:
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' VB Dim dir As String = "C:\test"
Lesson 2: Using Access Control Lists
Dim ds As DirectorySecurity = Directory.GetAccessControl(dir) ds.AddAccessRule(New FileSystemAccessRule("Guest", _ FileSystemRights.Read, AccessControlType.Allow)) Directory.SetAccessControl(dir, ds) // C# string dir = @"C:\test"; DirectorySecurity ds = Directory.GetAccessControl(dir); ds.AddAccessRule(new FileSystemAccessRule("Guest", FileSystemRights.Read, AccessControlType.Allow)); Directory.SetAccessControl(dir, ds);
To remove an access rule, simply replace AddAccessRule with RemoveAccessRule.
Lab: Working with DACLs and Inheritance
In this lab, you will work with file and folder DACLs, and you will learn how to rescue folders created with permissions that make them inaccessible. If you encounter a problem completing an exercise, the completed projects are available on the companion CD in the Code folder.
Exercise: Create a Folder with Explicit Permissions
In this exercise, you will write an application that creates a folder named C:\Guest and grants the Guest user Read access to the folder. Then you will create a file within that folder and display the permissions assigned to both the folder and the file to verify that your application functioned correctly. 1. Create a new console application in either Visual Basic or C#. 2. Add the System.Security.AccessControl, System.Security.Policy, System.Security.Principal, and System.IO namespaces to your project. 3. In the Main method, write code to create a DirectorySecurity object that grants the Guest user Read access to the folder. Create the folder by specifying the DirectorySecurity object. Do not create the folder before creating the DirectorySecurity object. For example, the following code would work:
' VB Dim ds As DirectorySecurity = New DirectorySecurity ds.AddAccessRule(New FileSystemAccessRule("Guest", _ FileSystemRights.Read, AccessControlType.Allow)) Directory.CreateDirectory("C:\Guest", ds) // C# DirectorySecurity ds = new DirectorySecurity(); ds.AddAccessRule(new FileSystemAccessRule("Guest", FileSystemRights.Read, AccessControlType.Allow)); Directory.CreateDirectory(@"C:\Guest", ds);
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