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Lesson 5: Generic Collections
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You can also use the foreach construct to iterate over the values in the LinkedList. Note that the type you can enumerate are the values, not the nodes of the list. This example stores strings in the LinkedList:
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' VB Dim links As new LinkedList(Of String)() Dim first as LinkedListNode(Of String) = links.AddLast("First") Dim last as LinkedListNode(Of String) = links.AddFirst("Last") Dim second as LinkedListNode(Of String) = links.AddBefore(last, "Second") links.AddAfter(second, "Third") For Each s As String In links Console.WriteLine(s) Next // C# LinkedList<String> links = new LinkedList<string>(); LinkedListNode<string> first = links.AddLast("First"); LinkedListNode<string> last = links.AddFirst("Last"); LinkedListNode<string> second = links.AddBefore(last, "Second"); links.AddAfter(second, "Third"); foreach (string s in links) { Console.WriteLine(s); }
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Much like nongeneric collections, there are different parts of the way that the generic collections work that are common across different generic collections. These commonalities include the use of generic collection interfaces, generic enumerators, and generic comparisons.
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Generic Collection Interfaces
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In nongeneric collections, a set of interfaces define a consistent interface across collections. These interfaces include IEnumerable, ICollection, IList, and so on. Although generic collections implement these interfaces, they also support generic versions of these same interfaces, as shown in the following example:
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' VB Dim stringList As New List(Of String) ' ... Dim theList As IList = CType(stringList, IList) Dim firstItem As Object = theList(0)
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// C# List<String> stringList = new List<String>(); // ... IList theList = (IList)stringList; object firstItem = theList[0];
The nongeneric IList interface is supported by the generic List collection. But in addition, there is a generic IList interface that can be used to get data from the interface in a type-safe way, like so:
' VB Dim typeSafeList As IList(Of String) = CType(stringList, IList(Of String)) Dim firstString As String = typeSafeList(0) // C# IList<String> typeSafeList = (IList<String>) stringList; String firstString = typeSafeList[0];
This is the same for ICollection, IDictionary, IEnumerable, and so on. In general, if you are working with generic collections but also want to work with the interfaces instead of the specific class, you should use the generic version of the interface to support type safety.
Generic Collection Enumerators
The generic collections that are shown in this lesson all support iterating over the values in the collection. To facilitate iteration, each collection supports its own generic nested Enumerator structure. This enumerator structure is specialized to the same type s parent class. If you need to use the actual enumerator instead of the foreach construct, you can get the enumerator by calling the GetEnumerator method like so:
' VB Dim stringList As New List(Of String) () ' ... Dim e As List(Of String).Enumerator = stringList.GetEnumerator While e.MoveNext ' Typesafe Access to the current item Dim s As String = e.Current End While
Lesson 5: Generic Collections
// C# List<string> stringList = new List<string>(); // ... List<string>.Enumerator e = stringList.GetEnumerator(); while (e.MoveNext()) { // Typesafe Access to the current item string s = e.Current; }
By using the Enumerator structure, you can get at the current item in the generic collection in a type-safe way. All the generic collections support this Enumerator structure.
Generic Comparisons
In earlier lessons, we saw that we could use the IComparer and IEqualityComparer interfaces to provide for comparison operations for sorting and comparison actions in our collections. For the generic collections, there are generic versions of these interfaces. In cases when you need to write your own implementations of the IComparer and IEqualityComparer interfaces, generic base classes can do much of the work for you. These classes are the generic Comparer class and generic EqualityComparer class. If you need to implement your own comparison logic, you would use these base classes, implement any abstract methods and override any default behavior that you need, as shown in the following example:
' VB Class MyComparer(Of T) Inherits Comparer(Of T) Public Overrides Function Compare(ByVal x As T, ByVal y As T) _ As Integer Return (x.GetHashCode - y.GetHashCode) End Function End Class // C# class MyComparer<T> : Comparer<T> { public override int Compare(T x, T y) { return x.GetHashCode() - y.GetHashCode(); } }
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