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Practice 1 Use the Driver Verifier Monitor to test a chosen driver under stress conditions. If you intend to install a third-party device that is not PnP, use the Driver Verifier Monitor to test the driver the manufacturer provides.
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Use Diskpart
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Practice 1 The Diskpart tool is widely used for disk management. Use the tool until you are familiar with its parameters and processes, such as selecting (focusing) on a disk or volume before carrying out operations on it. Look at how you would create scripts using the tool and the use of the noerr parameter.
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Take a Practice Test The practice tests on this book's companion DVD offer many options. For example, you can test yourself on just one exam objective, or you can test yourself on all the 70-680 certification exam content. You can set up the test so that it closely simulates the experience of taking a certification exam, or you can set it up in study mode so that you can look at the correct answers and explanations after you answer each question.
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Note
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MORE INFO: PRACTICE TESTS For details about all the practice test options available, see the section entitled "How to Use the Practice Tests," in the Introduction to this book.
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6: Network Settings
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Overview This chapter discusses networks and how you locate computers and other devices within networks. It looks at Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), a robust, reliable protocol that has implemented routing and delivered packets to hosts on subnets for many years. It also discusses the various types of IPv4 address and the services on which IPv4 relies. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the successor to IPv4, and the chapter explains why IPv4 might no longer be adequate to cope with modern intranet works, in particular the Internet. It describes the various types of IPv6 addresses and their functions, as well as address types that implement the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. Traditionally, most networks used wired connections, but wireless networking is now much more common, particularly with the increase in mobile communication and working from home. The chapter looks at how you set up both wired and wireless networks and troubleshoot connectivity problems. Finally, the chapter considers the new Windows 7 feature of location-aware printing that enables mobile users to move between networks without needing to re-specify their default printer. Exam objectives in this chapter: Configure IPv4 network settings. Configure IPv6 network settings. Configure networking settings.
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Lessons in this chapter: Lesson 1: Configuring IPv4 Lesson 2: Configuring IPv6 Lesson 3: Network Configuration
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Before You Begin To complete the exercises in the practices in this chapter, you need to have done the following: Installed the Windows 7 operating system on a stand-alone client PC as described in 1, "Install, Migrate, or Upgrade to Windows 7." You need Internet access to complete the exercises. Installed Windows 7 on a second PC. The procedure is the same as for installing the first PC, and the user name and password are the same (Kim_Akers and P@ssw0rd). The computer name is Aberdeen. As with the installation of the Canberra computer,
accept the installation defaults (unless you are not U.S.-based, in which case select the appropriate keyboard and time zone). It is highly recommended that you create the Aberdeen computer as a virtual machine (VM). You can do this by using Hyper-V or by downloading Microsoft Virtual PC 2007 at http://www.microsoft.com/downloadS/details.aspx FamilyID=04d26402-3199-48a3afa2-2dc0b40a73b6&displaylang=en If you have two physical computers that are not connected to the same network by any other method, you need to connect their Ethernet ports with a crossover cable or by using an Ethernet switch. You will need a wireless connection on the Canberra computer and a wireless access point (WAP) connected via a cable modem to the Internet to complete the optional exercise in Lesson 1. You need a wireless adapter on each computer to complete the exercise in Lesson 3, "Network Configuration," later in this chapter. REAL WORLD
Ian McLean I've just read it in a Microsoft magazine, so it must be correct we're running out of IPv4 addresses. As one of those who was crying wolf very loudly indeed in 1999, I can't say I'm surprised; in fact I am surprised it has taken so long. The use of Network Address Translation (NAT) and private addressing, of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR), and Variable-Length Subnet Mask (VLSM), and the claw-back of allocated but unused addresses were at best a temporary fix. They were never a solution. We were using up a limited resource. We could slow the process, but we could not halt it. So what's the solution In a word (or to be pedantic an acronym): IPv6. There's a huge amount of money invested in the IPv4 Internet and it's not about to go away. As a professional, you need to know about IPv4 and how to configure and work with it, and you will for some time yet. However, where there are now islands of IPv6 Internet among seas of IPv4 Internet, IPv6 is growing, and eventually IPv4 will become the islands, and they'll get smaller all the time. So don't ignore IPv4, but the time has come to add IPv6 to your skills base. After all, it's hardly new. The IPv6 Internet has been around since the last millennium. You don't need to subnet or supernet it, and a device can have several IPv6 addresses for different functions. There is quite an incredible (literally) number of available addresses. I'm told the resource is almost infinite. Forgive me, but wasn't that what they said about IPv4 address space in 1985 So learn IPv6. If I were you, I'd do so quickly. The human race is never more ingenious than when it sets its mind to using up a seemingly infinite resource. I may be getting on a bit, but I have bets with several of my colleagues that IPv8 will be around before I'm finally laid to rest. What hasn't occurred to them is how are they going to collect their winnings
Lesson 1: Configuring IPv4 As an IT professional with at least one year's experience, you will have come across IPv4 addresses, subnet masks, and default gateways. You know that in the enterprise environment, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers configure IPv4 settings automatically and Domain Name System (DNS) servers resolve computer names to IPv4 addresses. You might have Configured a small test network with static IPv4 addresses, although even the smallest of modern networks tend to obtain configuration from a cable modem or a WAP, which in turn is Configured by an Internet service provider (ISP). You might have set up Internet Connection Sharing in which client computers access the Internet through, and obtain their configuration from, another client computer. You have probably come across Automatic Private Internet Protocol (APIPA) addresses that start with 168.254 when debugging connectivity because computers that fail to get their IPv4 configuration addresses from DHCP typically configure themselves using APIPA instead so an APIPA address can be a symptom of DHCP failure or loss of connectivity, although it is also a valid way of configuring isolated networks that do not communicate with any other network, including the Internet. However, you might not have been involved in network design or have subnetted a network. Subnetting is not as common these days, when private networks and NAT give you a large number of addresses you can use. It was much more common in the days when all addresses were public and administrators had to use very limited allocations. Nevertheless, subnetting remains a useful skill and subnet masks are likely to be tested in the 70-680 examination. In this lesson, you look at the tools available for manipulating IPv4 addresses and subnet masks and implementing IPv4 network connectivity. The lesson considers the Network And Sharing Center, the Netstat and Netsh command-line tools, Windows Network Diagnostics, how you connecting a computer to a network, how you configure name resolution, the function of APIPA, how you set up a connection for a network, how you set up network locations, and how you resolve connectivity issues. Before you look at all the tools for manipulating and configuring IPv4, you first need to understand what the addresses and subnet masks mean. You will learn the significance of addresses such as 10.0.0.21, 207.46.197.32, and 169.254.22.10. You will learn why 255.255.255.128, 255.255.225.0, 225.255.254.0, and 255.255.252.0 are valid subnet masks, whereas 255.255.253.0 is not. You will learn what effect changing the value of the subnet mask has on the potential size of your network and why APIPA addresses do not have default gateways. This chapter starts with an introduction to IPv4, in particular IPv4 addresses, subnet masks, and default gateways. It continues with the practical aspects of configuring and managing a network.
After this lesson, you will be able to: Explain the functions of an IPv4 address, a subnet mask, and a default gateway, and interpret the dotted decimal format. Connect workstations to a wired network and set up Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) on that network. Manage connections for wired networks. Estimated lesson time: 50 minutes
Introduction to IPv4 Addressing IPv4 controls packet sorting and delivery. Each incoming or outgoing IPv4 packet, or datagram, includes the source IPv4 address of the sender and the destination IPv4 address of the recipient. IPv4 is responsible for routing. If information is being passed to another device within a subnet, the packet is sent to the appropriate internal IPv4 address. If the packet is sent to a destination that is not on the local subnet (for example, when you are accessing the Internet), IPv4 examines the destination address, compares it to a route table, and decides what action to take. You can view the IPv4 configuration on a computer by opening the Command Prompt window. You can access this either by selecting Accessories and then Command Prompt on the All Programs menu, or by entering cmd in the Run box. If you need to change a configuration rather than to merely examine it, you need to open an elevated command prompt. The Ipconfig command-line tool displays a computer's IPv4 settings (and IPv6 settings). Figure 6-1 shows the output of the Ipconfig command on a computer connected wirelessly through a WAP to the Internet and internally to a private wired network that is Configured through APIPA. For more detail enter ipconfig /all.
Figure 6-1: Ipconfig command output The IPv4 address identifies the computer and the subnet that the computer is on. An IPv4 address must be unique within a network. Here the private address is unique within the internal network (the number 10 at the start of the address indicates that the address is private). If an IPv4 address is a public address on the Internet, it needs to be unique throughout the Internet. We look at public and private addresses later in this lesson.
There is nothing magical about the IPv4 address. It is simply a number in a very large range of numbers. It is expressed in a format called dotted decimal notation because that provides a convenient way of working with it. An IPv4 address is a number defined by 32 binary digits (bits), where each bit is a 1 or a 0. Consider this binary number: 00001010 00010000 00001010 10001111 The spaces are meaningless. They only make the number easier to read. The decimal value of this number is 168,823,439. In hexadecimal, it is 0A100A8F. Neither of these ways of expressing the number is memorable or convenient. Note BINARY AND HEXADECIMAL NOTATION You do not need to be a mathematician or an expert in binary notation to understand IPv4 addressing, but you do need a basic knowledge. To learn more, you can search for "the binary system" (for example) on the Internet, but possibly the best way to become familiar with binary and hexadecimal is to use the scientific calculator supplied by Windows 7. For example, enable binary (Bin) and type in 11111111. Enable decimal (Dec) and then hexadecimal (Hex), and ensure that you get 255 and FF, respectively. The same calculator is available in the 70-680 examination. Binary digits are generally divided into groups of eight, called octets (an electronics engineer would call them bytes). So let us group this number into four octets and put a dot between each because dots are easier to see than spaces. 00001010.00010000.00001010.10001111 Convert the binary number in each octet to decimal and you get: 10.16.10.143 Binary, decimal, hexadecimal, and dotted decimal are all ways of expressing a number. The number uniquely identifies the computer (or other network feature) within a network and the specifically identifiable network (or subnet) that it is on. A network is divided into one or more subnets. Small networks for example, a test network might consist of only a single subnet. Subnets are connected to other subnets by a router (for example, a WAP, a Microsoft server Configured as a router, or a hardware device such as a Cisco or 3Com router). Each subnet has its own subnet address within the network and its own gateway or router connection. In large networks, some subnets can connect to more than one router. You can also regard the connection through a modem to an ISP as a subnet, and this subnet in turn connects to the Internet through a router at the ISP. So what identifies the computer and what identifies the subnet To discover this, we need to look at the next value, the subnet mask. Subnet masks are most peculiar numbers. They represent binary numbers that consist of all ones followed by all zeros. For example: 255.255.255.0 is the binary number 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000.
The actual value of this number is irrelevant. What matters is the number of ones and zeros. A one says that the corresponding bit in the IPv4 address is a network address bit. A zero says that the corresponding bit in the IPv4 address is a computer or host address bit. In the example given, the last 8 bits of the subnet mask are all zero. So the host address is the final octet of the subnet address, or 143. The network address of the subnet is 10.16.10.0. Because hosts are defined by a single octet in this example, the 10.16.10.0 subnet contains 254 host addresses. The first IPv4 address in the subnet is 10.16.10.1. The last is 10.16.10.254. The number 10.16.10.0 identifies the subnet and is called the subnet address The number 10.16.10.255 is called the broadcast address and is used when a packet needs to be sent to every host on a subnet. Subnetting and Supernetting You can split a subnet into smaller subnets by adding ones to the end of the ones in the subnet mask. If you have two (or more) suitable contiguous subnets, you can merge them into a single subnet by changing one or more ones at the end of the ones in the subnet masks to zeros. These techniques are known as subnetting and supernetting, respectively. If an organization has a significant number of computers on its network (say over 100 this number varies depending on the type, volume, and pattern of traffic on the network or if it has several geographic locations, the organization probably creates several subnets. If a subnet contains too many computers and other devices, it tends to slow down because there is a greater chance of two computers trying to put data onto the network simultaneously and causing a collision. Dividing a network into several subnets reduces the likelihood of such collisions. At the router that connects to the Internet, however, the organization uses supernetting to combine (or summarize) the subnets so that they can be defined with a single network address that will be translated to a public address on the Internet. Public addresses and address translation are discussed later in this lesson. Note MORE INFO: SUBNETTING AND SUPERNETTING For more information about supernetting and subnetting, and about CIDR and VLSM technologies, see http://support.microsoft.com/kb/164015. CIDR NOTATION Because the subnet mask 255.255.255.0 consists of 24 ones followed by 8 zeros, you can also write it as /24. A subnet with a network address 192.168.0.0 and a subnet mask 255.255.255.0 (for example) is then designated 192.168.0.0/24. This is sometimes called CIDR notation A subnet mask with 25 ones followed by 7 zeros is a /25 subnet mask. In dotted decimal, this would be 255.255.255.128. The final value shown in Figure 6-1 is the default gateway This is the IPv4 address of the router connection on the same subnet as the IPv4 address of the host computer. If an IPv4
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