Exchanging SOAP Messages with HTTP in Java

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Exchanging SOAP Messages with HTTP
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SOAP messages are network-protocol agnostic, which means that a SOAP message is not aware of or dependent on the type of network or protocol used to carry it. With that said, SOAP is primarily exchanged using HTTP. The reason for using HTTP is simple. Most Internet products, including web servers, application servers, and wireless devices, are designed to handle the HTTP protocol. This widespread support provides an instant infrastructure for SOAP messaging. The fact that SOAP can leverage the ubiquity of HTTP is one of the reasons it has become so popular so quickly. Another advantage of using HTTP is that SOAP messages can slip through firewalls without any hassles. If you have ever tried to support internal or external customers who are separated from you by a firewall (yours or theirs), you know the headaches it can create. Unless you have direct control over the firewall, your chances of communicating with arbitrary clients using anything but HTTP or SMTP (email) are slim to none. However, because SOAP can be transmitted with HTTP, it slips through the firewall unnoticed. This ability makes life a lot simpler for the application developer, but it s a point of contention with the security folks. Understandably, they re a bit irked by the idea of application developers circumventing their defenses. Using HTTP to carry an application protocol such as SOAP is commonly called HTTP tunneling. In the past, support for tunneling by vendors of other distributed object protocols (CORBA IIOP, DCOM, and so on) was sporadic and proprietary, making interoperability extremely difficult. However, tunneling over HTTP is built into the SOAP 1.1 specification, which means interoperability is no longer a problem. Because almost every application server vendor rapidly adopts SOAP, SOAP-HTTP tunneling is becoming ubiquitous. You can use SOAP 1.2 with other protocols, such as SMTP, FTP, and even raw TCP/ IP, but HTTP is the only protocol for which a binding is currently specified. As a result, EJB 3.1 and Java EE 6 require support for SOAP 1.1 over HTTP 1.1, but not other protocols.
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All this talk about SOAP is intended to give you a better idea of what is going on under the hood, but in practice, you are unlikely to interact with the protocol directly. As with
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most protocols, SOAP is designed to be produced and consumed by software and is usually encapsulated by a developer API. In EJB 3.1, the API you use to exchange SOAP messages is the Java API for XML-based Web Services (JAX-WS), which hides the details of SOAP messaging so that you can focus on developing and invoking web services. While using JAX-WS, you will rarely have to deal with the SOAP protocol, which is nice because it makes you a lot more productive. JAX-WS is covered in 21.
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The Web Service Description Language (WSDL) is an XML document used to describe a web service. WSDL is programming-language, platform, and protocol agnostic. The fact that WSDL is protocol agnostic means that it can describe web services that use protocols other than SOAP and HTTP. This ability makes WSDL very flexible, but it has the unfortunate side effect of also making WSDL abstract and difficult to understand. Fortunately, the WS-I Basic Profile 1.1 endorses only SOAP 1.1 or 1.2 over HTTP, so we ll discuss WSDL as if that s the only combination of protocols supported. Imagine that you want to develop a web services component that implements the following interface:
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public interface TravelAgent { public String makeReservation(int cruiseID, int cabinID, int customerId, double price); }
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Any application should be able to invoke this method using SOAP, regardless of the language in which it was written or the platform on which it is running. Because other programming languages don t understand Java, we have to describe the web service in a language they do understand: XML. Using XML, and specifically the WSDL markup language, we can describe the type of SOAP messages that must be sent to invoke the makeReservation() method. A WSDL document that describes the makeReservation() method might look like this:
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< xml version="1.0" > <definitions name="TravelAgent" xmlns="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/" xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:titan="http://www.titan.com/TravelAgent" targetNamespace="http://www.titan.com/TravelAgent"> <!-- message elements describe the parameters and return values --> <message name="RequestMessage"> <part name="cruiseId" type="xsd:int" /> <part name="cabinId" type="xsd:int" /> <part name="customerId" type="xsd:int" /> <part name="price" type="xsd:double" /> </message> <message name="ResponseMessage">
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<part name="reservationId" type="xsd:string" /> </message> <!-- portType element describes the abstract interface of a web service --> <portType name="TravelAgent"> <operation name="makeReservation"> <input message="titan:RequestMessage"/> <output message="titan:ResponseMessage"/> </operation> </portType> <!-- binding element tells us which protocols and encoding styles are used --> <binding name="TravelAgentBinding" type="titan:TravelAgent"> <soap:binding style="rpc" transport="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http"/> <operation name="makeReservation"> <soap:operation soapAction="" /> <input> <soap:body use="literal" namespace="http://www.titan.com/TravelAgent"/> </input> <output> <soap:body use="literal" namespace="http://www.titan.com/TravelAgent"/> </output> </operation> </binding> <!-- service element tells us the Internet address of a web service --> <service name="TravelAgentService"> <port name="TravelAgentPort" binding="titan:TravelAgentBinding"> <soap:address location="http://www.titan.com/webservices/TravelAgent" /> </port> </service> </definitions>
If you find the previous WSDL listing indecipherable, don t despair. Most people can t understand a WSDL document the first time they see one. Like many things that are complicated, the best approach to understanding WSDL is to study it in pieces. And fortunately, modern web services platforms, such as JBoss, provide tools to generate the WSDL for you. WSDL should be something you need to look at only when things break. At this point, things still break often, so it s helpful to be familiar with WSDL; it will show you what the server expects when a method is called. But don t think that you ll be called on to write a WSDL document by yourself.
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