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Defining a Web Service with JAX-RPC
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Java EE provides two different programming models for defining a JAX-RPC web service: the web container model (or servlet model) and the EJB container model. Given that this book is about EJB 3.1, we assume you are more interested in the EJB model. The core component in the EJB model is called an EJB endpoint. An EJB endpoint is a stateless session bean that is exposed as a web service. In addition to the remote and local component interfaces, there is another component interface, called the service endpoint interface. The service endpoint interface defines the abstract web services contract that the EJB endpoint provides to a web services client. Because an EJB endpoint is simply a SOAP-accessible stateless session bean, it has the same advantages as other EJBs. An EJB endpoint runs in the same EJB container that automatically manages transactions and security, and provides access to other EJBs and resources via injection or the JNDI ENC.
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The WSDL Document
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Every EJB endpoint must have a WSDL document that describes the web service. You can create this document by hand, or you can use the tools provided by your Java EE vendor to generate it. The <portType> declared by the WSDL document must be aligned with the endpoint interface of the web service. In other words, the mapping between the WSDL <portType> and the endpoint interface must be correct according to the JAXRPC specification. One way to ensure this is to create the WSDL document first, and then use it to generate the service endpoint interface:
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< xml version="1.0" > <definitions name="TravelAgent" xmlns="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/" xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:titan="http://www.titan.com/TravelAgent" targetNamespace="http://www.titan.com/TravelAgent"> <!-- message elements describe the parameters and return values --> <message name="RequestMessage"> <part name="cruiseId" type="xsd:int" /> <part name="cabinId" type="xsd:int" /> <part name="customerId" type="xsd:int" /> <part name="price" type="xsd:double" /> </message> <message name="ResponseMessage"> <part name="reservationId" type="xsd:string" /> </message> <!-- portType element describes the abstract interface of a web service --> <portType name="TravelAgentEndpoint"> <operation name="makeReservation"> <input message="titan:RequestMessage"/> <output message="titan:ResponseMessage"/> </operation> </portType> <!-- binding element tells us which protocols and encoding styles are used --> <binding name="TravelAgentBinding" type="titan:TravelAgentEndpoint"> <soap:binding style="rpc" transport="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http"/> <operation name="makeReservation"> <soap:operation soapAction="" /> <input> <soap:body use="literal" namespace="http://www.titan.com/TravelAgent"/> </input> <output> <soap:body use="literal" namespace="http://www.titan.com/TravelAgent"/> </output> </operation> </binding>
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<!-- service element tells us the Internet address of a web service --> <service name="TravelAgentService"> <port name="TravelAgentPort" binding="titan:TravelAgentBinding"> <soap:address location="http://www.titan.com/webservices/TravelAgent" /> </port> </service> </definitions>
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The Service Endpoint Interface
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The process for generating a service endpoint interface for an EJB endpoint is identical to the process we used to generate a JAX-RPC client. The JAX-RPC compiler generates it from the <portType> and <message> definitions (and <types>, if present). The resulting interface looks like the following:
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package com.titan.webservice; public interface TravelAgentEndpoint extends java.rmi.Remote { public java.lang.String makeReservation(int cruiseId, int cabinId, int customerId, double price) throws java.rmi.RemoteException; }
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Alternatively, you can start from Java by writing the service endpoint interface by hand. You can then generate the WSDL and the JAX-RPC mapping file from this interface. Refer to Table 21-1, earlier in this chapter, to determine the schema types that will be mapped from the Java parameters in each method.
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The Stateless Bean Class
The bean class defined for the TravelAgent endpoint must implement the methods defined by the endpoint interface. As with remote and local interfaces, a stateless bean class can implement the service endpoint interface directly. Here s the new definition for the TravelAgentBean class:
package com.titan.webservice; import com.titan.domain.*; import com.titan.cabin.*; import com.titan.processpayment.*; import javax.ejb.EJBException; import java.util.Date; import java.util.Calendar; import javax.persistence.*; @Stateless public class TravelAgentBean implements TravelAgentEndpoint { @PersistenceContext EntityManager em; @EJB ProcessPaymentLocal process; public String makeReservation(int cruiseId, int cabinId,
try {
int customerId, double price){ Cruise cruise = em.find(Cruise.class, cruiseId); Cabin cabin = em.find(Cabin.class, cabinId); Customer customer = em.find(Customer.class, customerId); CreditCardDO card = this.getCreditCard(customer); Reservation reservation = new Reservation( customer, cruise, cabin, price, new Date( )); process.byCredit(customer, card, price); return reservation.getId( );
}
} catch(Exception e) { throw new EJBException(e); }
}
public CreditCardDO getCreditCard(Customer cust) throws Exception{ CreditCard card = customer.getCreditCard( ); return new CreditCardDO(card.getNumber(),card.getExpirationDate( ), card.getCreditOrganization( )); }
The TravelAgentBean class is not that different from the TravelAgent EJB developed earlier in this chapter (the version that uses the Charge-It credit card processing web service). The primary differences are that it responds to web service calls rather than remote or local calls, and it is a stateless session bean rather than a stateful session bean.
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