Mapping Default Permissions in .NET framework

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Mapping Default Permissions
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Understanding the registry's default permissions is useful if you're an IT professional deploying software. Knowing whether members of the Users group can change a particular setting helps you test applications prior to deployment and determine if the application works with default permissions. If you determine that an application does work properly with the default permissions, it's good to go. If you determine that an application doesn't work properly with the default permissions, you must either fix the program or change the offending key's permissions. The easiest way to do that, of course, is using security templates. First you must understand the three fundamental groups in Windows XP: Users, Power Users, and Administrators. Through these groups, Windows XP provides different levels of access depending on each group's needs: Users. This group has the highest security because the default permissions given to it don't allow its members to change operating system data or other users' settings. Generally, users 168
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in this group can't change per computer operating system and application settings. They can usually include programs certified for Windows XP that administrators deploy to their computers. Last, this group gives its members full control over everything in their user profile, including their profile hives (HKCU). What frequently keeps IT professionals from assigning users to this group is that members can't usually run legacy applications. Rather than assign users to another group, deal with this problem by applying a compatible security template, which you learn how to do in the section titled "Deploying Security Templates," later in this chapter. Power Users. This group provides backward compatibility for running programs that aren't certified for Windows XP. The default permissions give this group the ability to change many per computer operating system and program settings. Generally, if you have legacy applications that users can't run as members of the Users group and you're not going to use security templates, adding those users to the Power Users group allows the applications to run. This group doesn't have enough permission to install most applications, though; members can't change operating system files or install services. The permissions given to the Power Users group is somewhere in the middle of the Users and Administrators groups. It's similar to the Users group in Microsoft Windows NT 4.0. And no, members of this group can't add themselves to the Administrators group. Administrators. This group provides full control of the entire computer. Its members can change all operating system and application files. They can change all settings in the registry. Also, they can take ownership of keys and change a key's ACL. IT professionals are often tempted to add users to this group to avoid having trouble deploying applications that are otherwise difficult to install or run. Don't. Because users in this group can install anything they like or change any setting they like, viruses are free to do their damage and users are free to subject their configurations to the inevitable bout of human error. To secure your enterprise's desktops and reduce downtime, reserve this group for actual administrators. If you're a power user, don't add your account to this group for the same reasons. Instead, when you need to perform an administrative task, use a secondary logon to start a program as Administrator: Hold down the Shift key while you right click the program's shortcut, click Run As, and then type the account name and password that you want to use to run the program. Table 7 1 on the next page describes the registry's default permissions after installing Windows XP from scratch. Keep in mind that the resulting permissions are different if you upgrade from an earlier version of Windows to Windows XP. I got these permissions from the security template that you use to restore Windows XP to out of box security. I've focused on the Users and Power Users groups because these are the primary issue. In most of these cases, the Administrators group has full control, as do the Creator Owner and System built in accounts. In most cases but not all each key's permissions replace all subkeys' permissions. This is through the magic of inheritance, which you learned about in the last section. Table 7 1: Default Permissions in the Registry Branch hklm\software hklm\software\classes hklm\software\classes\hlp hklm\software\classes\helpfile hklm\software\microsoft\ads\providers\ldap\extensions hklm\software\microsoft\ads\providers\nds 169 Users Read Read Read Read Read Read Power users Special Special Read Read Read Read
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hklm\software\microsoft\ads\providers\nwcompat hklm\software\microsoft\ads\providers\winnt hklm\software\microsoft\command processor hklm\software\microsoft\cryptography hklm\software\microsoft\cryptography\calais hklm\software\microsoft\driver signing hklm\software\microsoft\enterprisecertificates hklm\software\microsoft\msdtc hklm\software\microsoft\netdde hklm\software\microsoft\non driver signing hklm\software\microsoft\ole hklm\software\microsoft\protected storage system provider hklm\software\microsoft\rpc hklm\software\microsoft\secure hklm\software\microsoft\systemcertificates hklm\software\microsoft\upnp device host hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\accessibility hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\aedebug hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\asr\commands hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\classes hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\drivers32 hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\efs hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\font drivers hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\fontmapper hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion \image file execution options hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\inifilemapping hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\perflib hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\perflib\009 hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\profilelist hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\secedit hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\setup \recoveryconsole hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\svchost hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\terminal server\install\software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\runonce hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\time zones hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\windows hklm\software\microsoft\windows nt\currentversion\winlogon hklm\software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\explorer \user shell folders hklm\software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\group policy hklm\software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\installer hklm\software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\policies hklm\software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\reliability hklm\software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\runonce 170
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hklm\software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\runonceex hklm\software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\telephony hklm\software\policies hklm\system hklm\system\clone hklm\system\controlset001 hklm\system\controlset001\services\dhcp\configurations hklm\system\controlset001\services\dhcp\parameters hklm\system\controlset001\services\dhcp\parameters\options hklm\system\controlset001\services\dnscache\parameters hklm\system\controlset001\services\mrxdav\encrypteddirectories hklm\system\controlset001\services\netbt\parameters hklm\system\controlset001\services\netbt\parameters\interfaces hklm\system\controlset001\services\tcpip\linkage hklm\system\controlset001\services\tcpip\parameters hklm\system\controlset001\services\tcpip\parameters\adapters hklm\system\controlset001\services\tcpip\parameters\interfaces hklm\system\controlset002 hklm\system\controlset003 hklm\system\controlset004 hklm\system\controlset005 hklm\system\controlset006 hklm\system\controlset007 hklm\system\controlset008 hklm\system\controlset009 hklm\system\controlset010 hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\class hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\keyboard layout hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\keyboard layouts hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\network hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\securepipeservers\winreg hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\session manager\executive hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\timezoneinformation hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\wmi\security hklm\system\currentcontrolset\enum hklm\system\currentcontrolset\hardware profiles hklm\system\currentcontrolset\services\appmgmt\security hklm\system\currentcontrolset\services\clipsrv\security hklm\system\currentcontrolset\services\cryptsvc\security hklm\system\currentcontrolset\services\dnscache hklm\system\currentcontrolset\services\ersvc\security hklm\system\currentcontrolset\services\eventlog\security hklm\system\currentcontrolset\services\irenum\security 171
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