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Building a Custom Security Template
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The hard way to create a custom security template is to start from scratch: 1. In Security Templates, right click the folder in which you want to create the new template, and then click New Template. 2. In Template Name, type the name of the new template in Description, type a brief but useful description of your new template, and click OK. 3. In the left pane, double click the new security template to open it. Select a security area, such as Registry, in the left pane, and configure that area's security settings in the right pane. That's the hard way, and definitely not the way I recommend. First it's too labor intensive. Second it's error prone. The best way to create a security template is to start with one of the predefined templates, save it to a new file, and then edit it carefully. Most of the times I've done this, I started with the Compatws.inf template file and customized it as necessary to give a legacy application enough room to work. Here's how: 1. In Security Templates, double click C:\Windows\Security\Templates. 2. Right click the predefined template you want to customize, click Save As, type a new file name for the security template, and click Save. 3. In the left pane, double click the new security template to open it. Select a security area, such as Registry, in the left pane, and configure that area's security settings in the right pane. Because this is a registry book, I'll give you a little more detail about configuring registry security in a template. In the left pane of Security Templates, double click your template, and then click Registry. You'll see a list of registry keys in the right pane. To add a key to the list, right click Registry, and then click Add Key. Because the list already covers all of HKLM, add exceptions to the settings that the template defines for HKLM\SOFTWARE and HKLM\SYSTEM. To edit a key's settings, double click it, and then select one of the following options: Configure This Key Then. After selecting this option, select one of the following: Propagate Inheritable Permissions To All Subkeys. The key's subkey inherits the key's security settings, assuming that the subkeys' security settings don't block inheritance. In case of a conflict, the subkey's explicit permissions override the permissions they inherit from the parent key. Replace Existing Permissions On All Subkeys With Inheritable Permissions. The key's permissions override all its subkey's permissions. In other words, each subkey's permissions will be identical to the parent key's permissions. If you select this option and apply the template, the change is permanent unless you change it by applying a different template to the registry. 178
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Do Not Allow Permissions On This Key To Be Replaced. Select this option if you don't want to configure the key or its subkey's permissions. To edit the actual permissions that you want the template to apply to the key, click Edit Security. You do this in the same Security For Name dialog box that you saw earlier in this chapter. You can add and remove groups. You can allow or deny permissions for different users and groups to perform various tasks. You can audit users' and groups' access to the key. You can also change ownership of the key. When you apply the template to a computer or deploy the template through Group Policy, the key receives the permissions you define here.
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With your custom template in hand, you can use it to analyze a computer's security configuration. Security Configuration And Analysis enables you to compare the current state of the computer's security configuration to the settings defined in the template. You can use this tool to make immediate changes to the computer's configuration, such as when troubleshooting a problem. You can also use it to track and ensure a certain level of security as part of your enterprise risk management program, detecting flaws in security as they occur over time. Here's how to analyze a computer's security using Security Configuration And Analysis: 1. Right click Security Configuration And Analysis, which you added to your console in the section titled "Creating a Security Management Console," earlier in this chapter, and then click Open Database. 2. In the Open Database dialog box, do one of the following: To create a new analysis database, type the name of your new database in File Name, and click Open (you don't have a database initially). Then in the Import Template dialog box, click a template and click Open. To open an existing analysis database, type the name of an existing database in File Name, and click Open. 3. Right click Security Configuration And Analysis, click Analyze Computer Now, and then accept the default log file path or specify a new one. Security Configuration And Analysis compares the computer's current security against the analysis database. If you import multiple templates into the database, which you can do by right clicking Security Configuration And Analysis and then clicking Import Template, the tool merges the templates together to create one template. If it detects a conflict, the last template you loaded has precedence (last in, first out). After Security Configuration And Analysis analyzes the computer, it displays results that you can browse. The organization of these results is the same as in security templates. The difference is that Security Configuration And Analysis displays indicators that show whether a current setting matches or is inconsistent with a setting defined in the template: Red X. The setting is in the analysis database and on the computer, but the two versions don't match. The trick is to drill down through settings that have a red X next to them until you isolate the specific problem. Green Check Mark. The setting is in the analysis database and on the computer, and the two match. Question Mark. The setting is not in the analysis database and was not analyzed. This might also mean that the user who ran Security Configuration And Analysis didn't have permissions necessary to do so. Exclamation Point. The setting is in the analysis database but not on the computer. A 179
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registry key might exist in the database but not on the computer. No Indicator. The setting is not in the database or on the computer. What do you do with any discrepancies you find between the analysis database and the computer's settings First you can update the database by double clicking the troublesome setting and clicking Edit Security (see Figure 7 5). This updates the database but not the template, however. Also, it doesn't change the computer's settings. To do that, see the next section. You can also import a more appropriate template for that computer or an updated template into the database and then analyze it again. To avoid problems that result from merging templates, consider creating a new database if you use a new or updated template.
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