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Using IPSec in Tunnel Mode
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IPSec by default operates in transport mode, which is used to provide end-to-end security between computers. Transport mode is also used in most IPSec-based VPNs, for which the Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) protocol is used to tunnel the IPSec connection through the public network. However, when a particular VPN gateway is not compatible with L2TP/IPSec VPNs, you can use IPSec in tunnel mode instead. With tunnel mode, an entire IP packet is protected and then encapsulated with an additional, unprotected IP header. The IP addresses of the outer IP header represent the tunnel endpoints, and the IP addresses of the inner IP header represent the ultimate source and destination addresses.
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Tunnel Mode Is Rarely Used
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IPSec tunnel mode is supported as an advanced feature. It is used in some gateway-to-gateway tunneling scenarios to provide interoperability with routers, gateways, or end-systems that do not support L2TP/IPSec or Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) connections. IPSec tunnels are not supported for remote access VPN scenarios. For remote access VPNs, use L2TP/IPSec or PPTP. These VPNs are discussed in 7, Connecting to Networks.
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Lesson 1: Configuring IPSec
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An illustration of an IPSec tunnel is shown in Figure 6-4.
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Encrypted Traffic Unencrypted Traffic Encrypted Traffic Unencrypted Traffic
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IPSec Tunnel Windows Client Site A: Boston Third-Party IPSec Gateway Internet FTP Server Site B: Binghamton
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Figure 6-4
Gateway-to-gateway tunneling between sites You need to understand the basics of IPSec tunnel mode for the 70-642 exam.
Exam Tip
Authentication Methods for IPSec
An essential concept in implementing IPSec is that IPSec requires a shared authentication mechanism between communicating computers. You can use any of these three methods to authenticate the hosts communicating through IPSec:
Kerberos (Active Directory) Because Kerberos is the default authentication protocol in
an Active Directory environment, the easiest way to configure authentication for IPSec is to implement IPSec within a single Active Directory forest. When the two IPSec endpoints can be authenticated by Active Directory, the security foundation for IPSec requires no configuration beyond joining the hosts to the domain. Note that if your network environment includes a Kerberos realm outside of Active Directory, you can also use this Kerberos realm to provide authentication for IPSec communications. Certificates If you need to implement IPSec in a production environment in which Kerberos authentication is not available, you should use a certificate infrastructure to authenticate the IPSec peers. In this solution, each host must obtain and install a computer certificate from a public or private certification authority (CA). The computer certificates do not need to originate from the same CA, but each host must trust the CA that has issued the certificate to the communicating peer. Preshared Key A preshared key is a password shared by peers and used both to encrypt and decrypt data. In IPSec, you can also specify a preshared key on endpoints to enable encryption between hosts. Although this authentication method enables
6
Protecting Network Traffic with IPSec
IPSec SAs to be established, preshared keys do not provide the same level of authentication that certificates and Kerberos do. In addition, preshared keys for IPSec are stored in plaintext on each computer or in Active Directory, which reduces the security of this solution. For these reasons, it is recommended that you use preshared keys only in nonproduction environments such as test networks. Exam Tip
You need to understand IPSec authentication mechanism for the 70-642 exam. Remember that Kerberos authentication is preferable in an Active Directory environment. Outside of an Active Directory environment, a certificate infrastructure is your best option.
Assigning a Predefined IPSec Policy
In Group Policy, three IPSec Policies are predefined. You can thus configure an IPSec Policy for a domain or OU by assigning any one of the following predefined policies:
When you assign this policy to a computer through a GPO, that computer will never initiate a request to establish an IPSec communications channel with another computer. However, any computer to which you assign the Client policy will negotiate and establish IPSec communications when requested by another computer. You typically assign this policy to intranet computers that need to communicate with secured servers but that do not need to protect all traffic. Server (Request Security) You should assign this policy to computers for which encryption is preferred but not required. With this policy, the computer accepts unsecured traffic but always attempts to secure additional communications by requesting security from the original sender. This policy allows the entire communication to be unsecured if the other computer is not IPSec-enabled. For example, communication to specific servers can be secure while allowing the server to communicate in an unsecured manner to accommodate a mixture of clients (some of which support IPSec and some of which do not). Secure Server (Require Security) You should assign this policy to intranet servers that require secure communications, such as a server that transmits highly sensitive data.
Client (Respond Only)
To assign an IPSec Policy within a GPO, select the IP Security Policies node, right-click the chosen policy in the Details pane, and then choose Assign from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 6-5. You can assign only one IPSec Policy to a computer at a time. If you assign a second IPSec Policy to a computer, the first IPSec Policy automatically becomes unassigned. If Group Policy assigns an IPSec Policy to a computer, the computer ignores any IPSec Policy assigned in its Local Security Policy.
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