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Configuring Name Resolution
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HOSTS file DNS server cache
Figure 2-6
A possible chain of events triggered by a DNS name query
The query process begins when a DNS domain name is used in a program on the local computer. In the example shown in Figure 2-6, a Web browser calls the FQDN www.microsoft.com. The request is then passed to the DNS Client service (the DNS resolver cache) to resolve this name by using locally cached information. If the queried name can be resolved, the query is answered and the process is completed. The local resolver cache can include name information obtained from two possible sources:
If a Hosts file is configured locally, any host-name-to-address mappings from that file are loaded into the cache when the DNS Client service is started and whenever the Hosts file is updated. In Windows Server 2008, the Hosts file is essentially provided as a means to add entries to the resolver cache dynamically. Resource records obtained in answered responses from previous DNS queries are added to the cache and kept for a period of time.
If the query does not match an entry in the cache, the resolution process continues with the client querying a DNS server to resolve the name.
Lesson 1: Understanding Name Resolution in Windows Server 2008 Networks
Quick Check
If a computer needs to resolve a DNS name, what is the first method it attempts to use
Quick Check Answer A computer first checks the resolver cache to answer a query. Step 2: Querying a DNS Server The DNS Client service uses a server search list ordered by preference. This list includes all preferred and alternate DNS servers configured for each of the active network connections on the system. The client first queries the DNS server specified as the preferred DNS server in the connection s Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box. If no preferred DNS servers are available, alternate DNS servers are used. Figure 2-7 shows a sample list of preferred and alternate DNS servers, as configured in Windows Server 2008.
Figure 2-7
Preferred and alternate servers
When a DNS server receives a query, it first checks to see whether it can answer the query authoritatively that is, on the basis of information contained in a locally configured zone on the server. If the queried name matches a corresponding resource record in local zone information, the server answers authoritatively, using this information to resolve the queried name. If no zone information exists for the queried name, the server then checks to see whether it can resolve the name by using locally cached information from previous queries. If a match is found here, the server answers with this information. Again, if the preferred server can answer with a positive matched response from its cache to the requesting client, the query is completed.
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Configuring Name Resolution
Quick Check
1. When a DNS server receives a query, how does it first attempt to resolve the name 2. If a DNS server cannot resolve a query by using the first method, which method will it use next Quick Check Answers 1. A DNS server first attempts to resolve a query by using resource records stored in a locally configured zone. 2. If a DNS server cannot resolve a query by using zone data, it attempts to answer the query by using cached information.
Understanding Recursion
If the queried name does not find a matched answer at its preferred server either from its cache or zone information the query process continues in a manner dependent on the DNS server configuration. In the default configuration, the DNS server performs recursion to resolve the name. In general, recursion in DNS refers to the process of a DNS server querying other DNS servers on behalf of an original querying client. This process, in effect, turns the original DNS server into a DNS client. If recursion is disabled on the DNS server, the client itself performs iterative queries by using root hint referrals from the DNS server. Iteration refers to the process of a DNS client making repeated queries to different DNS servers.
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