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Secure and Insecure Wireless Network Topology Options
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The typical wireless network configuration consists of an access point a server that connects clients to an internal network and client computers. Figure 12-1 shows this arrangement, which is known as a Basic Service Set (BSS). The wireless access point serves as a bridge between the wireless and wired network. When a wireless network is configured in this manner, any wireless client that can suc cessfully connect to the wireless AP is connected to the internal network. When several APs are used but are connected to the same wireless network, the arrangement is known as an Extended Services Set (ESS). The ESS creates a single logical network seg ment and is identified by a single Service Set Identifier (SSID). An example ESS is shown in Figure 12-2. Security consists of wireless AP controls, as discussed later in the section titled The Process: Designing Security for Wireless Networks. A more secure approach requires the wireless client to use a virtual private network (VPN) to access the internal network. Figure 12-3 shows this arrangement. In the fig ure, note the use of a firewall to protect the internal network from potential attacks from unauthorized wireless clients.
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Designing Security for Wireless Networks
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Wired Network Wireless AP
Wireless Clients
F12xx01
Figure 12-1 A simple wireless network uses a wireless access point as a bridge to a wired network.
SSID vulcan
Wired Network
Wireless Clients
F12xx02
Wireless APs
Figure 12-2 Several wireless APs can be combined to create a single logical subnet.
Intranet
Internet
Access Point Wireless Clients
F12xx03
Figure 12-3 When a VPN is required in order to access the internal network, client-to-server communications can be secured, as can the wired network.
Another approach uses a RADIUS server and the 802.1x authentication protocol to provide additional security both at the AP and at the juncture of wireless and wired networks. As shown in Figure 12-4, Microsoft Internet Authentication Server (IAS) can be
12-8
12
Designing Security for Wireless Networks
used as the authentication server in this arrangement. In the figure, the dotted lines represent the request for connection from the wireless client to the AP, which then must go to IAS and be authenticated by Active Directory.
Wired Network Wireless AP
Wireless Clients
Domain Controller
Figure 12-4 IAS provides a secure border control for wired/wireless network connections.
Wireless Network Security Features
Although the security features built in to 802.11 networks are few, there are options. The following authentication and encryption choices must be made as part of the design process.
Authentication options for 802.11 two types of authentication:
The 802.11 standard defines the following
Open System Authentication No authentication is done unless it is com bined with Media Access Control (MAC) address restriction on the AP. Shared Key Authentication A shared secret is used. There is no method defined for key distribution. The key configured on the AP must be known to the person manually configuring the client. The process is difficult to main tain especially in a large environment or when shared keys are frequently changed to increase security.
Encryption for 802.11 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encrypts the data sent between wireless nodes using RC4. No key management protocol is defined. Keys must be manually distributed and added to wireless clients. Manual changes are required. The following two keys are defined:
A global key that protects multicast and broadcast traffic from a wireless AP to its clients. A session key that protects unicast traffic between the AP and its clients and that protects multicast and broadcast traffic sent from clients to the AP.
Lesson 1
Designing Security for Wireless Networks
12-9
WiFi Protected Access (WPA) This is an interim standard that follows the proposed 802.11i wireless standard. This standard provides improved encryption by using the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). TKIP provides integrity. Authen tication is provided by the use of the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). 802.1x This is a new security standard for 802.11 networks that uses RADIUS for authentication and provides key management.
The Process: Designing Security for Wireless Networks
In spite of the options listed in the previous section, the typical 802.11 wireless access point offers little in the way of security. In many cases, it is deployed using the system defaults and does not support the relatively new WPA or 802.1x standards. The access point is connected to the wired network and then turned on. Computer systems with wireless cards can easily connect to the network. To design security for an 802.11 network, follow this process: 1. Be aware of the threats that wireless networks introduce. 2. Advise management of the threats, propose a wireless security policy that outlaws unapproved wireless networks and specifies the wireless security standards for your organization, or if appropriate, do both. 3. Design wireless security for 802.11b networks:
Design security for wireless clients. Design secure configuration of wireless networks. Provide a more secure network topology.
4. Design security for 802.11i (WPA) networks. 5. Design wireless security using 802.1x authentication. Guidelines for these design steps are provided below, with the exception of number 5. The subject of designing wireless security using 802.1x authentication is discussed in Lesson 2.
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