zxing qr code generator sample c# Designing the Logical Infrastructure in Visual C#.NET

Creator QR-Code in Visual C#.NET Designing the Logical Infrastructure

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Designing the Logical Infrastructure
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5. If an automatic approval or rejection cannot be given, the requesting user or enrollment agent must check back later to either obtain the certificate or find out whether the request has been rejected.
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The Automatic End-User Enrollment Process
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When automatic enrollment is available, certificates are automatically issued for intended users or computers. It is not necessary to make a manual request. The exact process when the certificate must be requested and what has to happen before it can be installed will depend on the type of certificate. Automatic enrollment for computer certificates and Encrypting File System (EFS) certif icates was introduced in Windows 2000. In Windows 2000, if automatic computer cer tificate enrollment is configured, a certificate is issued to and installed by a computer when it joins the domain. If a CA is configured to issue EFS certificates, a certificate is issued to and installed by a user s computer when the user first requests to encrypt a file. If no CA is present to issue an EFS certificate, and EFS is not disabled, a self-signed certificate is issued for the user. Windows Server 2003 expands the use of automatic enrollment to users. However, for certificates to be automatically enrolled, custom certificate templates must be created and configured for automatic enrollment. The process of automatic enrollment will vary. For example, to complete the enrollment process, the certificate must be distrib uted to the users. In the case of certificates for smart cards, for certificates to be installed, the user must have a smart card reader/writer and must insert a new smart card into the reader at the proper time. Thus, the process cannot be completed until the user is prompted to insert a smart card (signifying that the process is ready) and then inserts the smart card. Remember, however, that the process of enrollment is auto matic here. Enrollment is the request and the approval or denial. Distribution delivers the certificate, and installation installs it. It is the later part of the process that must be completed, in this case, by a manual operation.
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Considerations for Designing Certificate Enrollment
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You have to consider many things as you design certificate enrollment. First among these considerations are the constraints on the process. The following sections describe the constraints that limit the certificate enrollment process and then provide additional considerations for designing certificate enrollment.
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Constraints that Limit the Certificate Enrollment Process
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Constraints are of two types: those that are built-in to the product and are unchange able and those that can be configured. Consider the following constraints when design ing the certificate enrollment process:
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Designing the Certificate Enrollment Process
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Built-in constraints are controls that already exist.
If a user can authenticate to an enterprise CA, he or she can make a certificate enrollment request for a user certificate such as an EFS certificate, user certif icate, and so on. To request a computer or service certificate, a user must have administrative privileges. To request a CA certificate, a user must have administrative privileges on the CA.
Configurable constraints are under your control. They might have a default configuration, but they are meant to be configured to suit the policy and risk posture of the organization. These are the configurable constraints:
Certificate types can be restricted to users and groups of users by adding or removing the Enroll permission on the certificate template for the specific cer tificate type. For example, EFS Recovery Agent certificates can be restricted to a specific group of users by giving the group the Enroll permission on the EFS Recovery Agent certificate and not including any other group. A best practice is to pay careful attention to who can request each certificate type and who is given permission, via use of groups, to obtain certificates. A CA can be restricted in the types of certificates it issues. In general, the root CA and intermediary CAs should issue only CA certificates. Further, issuing CAs should not issue CA certificates and should be configured to issue only the certificate types that are approved. This guideline, however, might not work in some circumstances. In smaller environments, for example, a single CA might serve all purposes or a two-tier hierarchy made up of two CAs might be present. The policy of the issuing CA can be set to require manual approval of each certificate request. In a large enterprise where thousands of certificates must be issued, this is not a workable solution. However, even in a large enter prise, some CAs, such as the root CA, can be set to require manual approval. Automatic enrollment of computer certificates can be configured in Active Directory Group Policy. In a cross-forest trust, a Windows Server 2003 CA will not by default chase, or attempt to find, user information necessary to approve a certificate request from a trusted forest. This constraint improves performance and also security because you might not want to issue certificates directly to users in the trusted forest. Cross-forest referral, or referral chasing, can be enabled via a certutil command on the CA. The certutil setreg policy\EditFlags +EDITF_ENABLELDAPREFERRALS command must be issued at the com mand prompt on the CA, and then the service must be stopped and started.
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