Lesson 1: Using Client-Side State Management in Visual Studio .NET

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Lesson 1: Using Client-Side State Management
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' Define the cookie for the next visit Response.Cookies("lastVisit").Value = DateTime.Now.ToString Response.Cookies("lastVisit").Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1) //C# // Check if cookie exists, and display it if it does if (Request.Cookies["lastVisit"] != null) // Encode the cookie in case the cookie contains client-side script Label1.Text = Server.HtmlEncode(Request.Cookies["lastVisit"].Value); else Label1.Text = "No value defined"; // Define the cookie for the next visit Response.Cookies["lastVisit"].Value = DateTime.Now.ToString(); Response.Cookies["lastVisit"].Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1);
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The HttpCookie class
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This example shows the simplest and most common way of creating cookies. You can also create instances of the HttpCookie class and add them to the HttpCookieCollection.
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The first time the user visits the page in the previous example, the code displays No value defined because the cookie has not yet been set. However, if you refresh the page, it displays the time of the first visit. Note that the code sample defines the Expires property for the cookie. You must define the Expires property and set it for the time period you would like the client to store the cookie if you want the cookie to per sist between browser sessions. If you do not define the Expires property, the browser stores it in memory and the cookie is lost if the user closes his or her browser. To delete a cookie, overwrite the cookie and set an expiration date in the past. You can t directly delete cookies because they are stored on the client s computer.
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Viewing and troubleshooting cookies
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As described in 1, Introducing the ASP.NET 2.0 Web Site, you can use Trace.axd to view cookies for every page request.
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Controlling Cookie Scope
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Some Web sites store private information in cookies. For that reason, you don t want a browser to send your cookie to other Web sites. By default, browsers won t send a cookie to a Web site with a different hostname (although, in the past, vulnerabilities in browsers have allowed attackers to trick a browser into submitting another Web site s cookie).
7
ASP.NET State Management
You can control a cookie s scope to either limit the scope to a specific folder on the Web server or expand the scope to any server in a domain. To limit the scope of a cookie to a folder, set the Path property, as the following example demonstrates:
'VB Response.Cookies("lastVisit").Value = DateTime.Now.ToString Response.Cookies("lastVisit").Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1) Response.Cookies("lastVisit").Path = "/Application1" //C# Response.Cookies["lastVisit"].Value = DateTime.Now.ToString(); Response.Cookies["lastVisit"].Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1); Response.Cookies["lastVisit"].Path = "/Application1";
With the scope limited to /Application1 , the browser submits the cookie to any page in the /Application1 folder, but not to pages in other folders, even if they are on the same server. To expand the scope to an entire domain, set the Domain property, as the following example demonstrates:
'VB Response.Cookies("lastVisit").Value = DateTime.Now.ToString Response.Cookies("lastVisit").Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1) Response.Cookies("lastVisit").Domain = "contoso.com" //C# Response.Cookies["lastVisit"].Value = DateTime.Now.ToString(); Response.Cookies["lastVisit"].Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1); Response.Cookies["lastVisit"].Domain = "contoso.com";
Setting the Domain property to Contoso.com causes the browser to submit the cookie to any server in the contoso.com domain, which might include www.con toso.com, intranet.contoso.com, or private.contoso.com. Similarly, you can use the Domain property to specify a full hostname, limiting the cookie to that specific server.
Storing Multiple Values in a Cookie
Though it depends on the browser, you typically can t store more than 20 cookies per site, and each cookie can be a maximum of 4 KB in length. To work around the 20-cookie limit, you can store multiple values in a cookie, as the following code demonstrates:
'VB Response.Cookies("info")("visit") = DateTime.Now.ToString() Response.Cookies("info")("firstName") = "Tony" Response.Cookies("info")("border") = "blue" Response.Cookies("info").Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1)
Lesson 1: Using Client-Side State Management
//C# Response.Cookies["info"]["visit"].Value = DateTime.Now.ToString();
Response.Cookies["info"]["firstName"].Value = "Tony";
Response.Cookies["info"]["border"].Value = "blue";
Response.Cookies["info"].Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1);
Running the code in this example sends a cookie with the following value to the Web browser:
(visit=4/5/2006 2:35:18 PM) (firstName=Tony) (border=blue)
Cookie properties, such as Expires, Domain, and Path, apply for all values within a cookie. You can access individual values within the cookie using Request.Cookies in exactly the same way you define the values.
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