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Drawing Data Matrix 2d barcode in Visual Basic .NET Lesson 4

Lesson 4
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Implementing a NetBIOS Name Resolution Strategy
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Lesson 4: Implementing a NetBIOS Name Resolution Strategy
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If you have determined that your network must use NetBIOS names to support com puters running versions of Windows earlier than Windows 2000, you have two name resolution alternatives: the broadcast transmission method or WINS.
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After this lesson, you will be able to
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Create and deploy an Lmhosts file Configure WINS servers to replicate their databases
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Estimated lesson time: 15 minutes
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Using Broadcasts with Lmhosts
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The broadcast transmission method of NetBIOS name resolution by itself is suitable only for small, single-segment networks, because broadcast transmissions do not propagate beyond the boundaries of the LAN. However, it is possible to use broadcasts in combination with an Lmhosts file to provide a complete NetBIOS name resolution method for multi-segment networks.
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The broadcast name resolution method requires no manual configuration or administration. NetBIOS computers that you have not configured as WINS clients use broadcasts to resolve names automatically. However, to provide name resolution for NetBIOS com puters on other networks, you must create an Lmhosts file and deploy it on each NetBIOS computer.
Exam Tip
As described earlier in this chapter, an Lmhosts file is a lookup table containing NetBIOS names and their equivalent IP addresses. Because you have to create the Lmhosts file manually, the easiest way to implement this solution is to create a single file and deploy it on all the NetBIOS computers on your network. To do this, you create the file and store it on a network share that is accessible from all the NetBIOS computers. On each NetBIOS computer, you open the Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog box in the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click the WINS tab, and select the Enable Lmhosts Lookup check box (see Figure 4-9). Then you click Import Lmhosts and browse to the file you created, to copy it to the computer.
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4
Planning a Name Resolution Strategy
Figure 4-9 The WINS tab in the Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog box
Once you have completed this procedure, the computer will use the broadcast method to resolve NetBIOS names, and if this method fails, it will try to look up the name in the Lmhosts file. If the computer does not find the name in the Lmhosts file, name resolu tion fails.
Creating an Lmhosts File
Creating an Lmhosts file is largely a matter of typing the NetBIOS names and IP addresses of the computers on your network that clients must be able to access. There are some additional options that increase the efficiency of the file. In most cases, the use of Lmhosts files is practical only when clients require access to a few key servers on other networks. Creating and maintaining an Lmhosts file that contains entries for all the computers on the network can be an administrative nightmare that is easily avoided by installing WINS servers. Lmhosts is a text file that you can create using Windows Notepad or any text editor and save to the %Systemroot%\System32\Drivers\Etc folder of a computer running Windows. The basic entries of the Lmhosts file consist of an IP address followed by at least one space, and then the NetBIOS name associated with that address. Following the NetBIOS name and separated by at least one more space, you can insert a pound (#) symbol and type a comment. The system ignores everything on that line after the pound symbol when processing the file. Each entry must appear on a separate line, as shown in the following example:
192.168.5.65 192.168.9.34 192.168.2.110 Hrserver Fserve1 Smtp #Human Resources server #File server 1 #Internet e-mail server
Lesson 4
Implementing a NetBIOS Name Resolution Strategy
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In addition to the standard name-to-address mappings, Lmhosts also supports a num ber of extensions that can increase the efficiency of name resolution and simplify the deployment of Lmhosts files. These extensions are as follows:
<
#PRE
Preloads Lmhosts entries into the computer s NetBIOS name cache Associates the entry with the domain specified by the domain
#DOM:domain variable
#INCLUDE pathname Causes the system to locate and parse an Lmhosts file at a remote location, identified by pathname, as if it were local #BEGIN_ALTERNATE and #END_ALTERNATE Surrounds a group of #INCLUDE extensions, causing the system to process each statement in turn until it locates one of the included Lmhosts files successfully \0nn Allows the use of non-printing characters in NetBIOS name entries
Using the #PRE Extension The most useful of these extensions, as far as the effi ciency of NetBIOS name resolution is concerned, is the #PRE tag. When this extension is added to any standard Lmhosts entry, after the NetBIOS name and before any com ments (separated by at least one space), the computer reads the entry during system startup and loads it into memory as part of the NetBIOS name cache. As a result, the computer can resolve the name immediately, using the information stored in memory without having to perform a broadcast name resolution or search the Lmhosts file on disk. An example of the #PRE extension follows:
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