winforms data matrix Creating and Managing Digital Certificates in Visual Basic .NET

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Creating and Managing Digital Certificates
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9. Click OK to close the Certificate dialog box, and then click Yes in the Security Warning dialog box. The software installation proceeds. 10. Close Internet Explorer after the installation completes.
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The following questions are intended to reinforce key information presented in this lesson. If you are unable to answer a question, review the lesson materials and try the question again. You can find answers to the questions in the Questions and Answers section at the end of this chapter. 1. Which of the following pieces of information is not included as part of a digital certificate a. Validity period b. Private key c. Signature algorithm identifier d. Public key 2. For each of the following messaging scenarios, specify which key you should use to encrypt the message: the sender s public key, the sender s private key, the recipient s public key, or the recipient s private key. a. To send a message that can t be read by anyone but the recipient b. To assure the recipient that the message you are sending actually came from you
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Public key encryption uses two keys, a public key and a private key. Data encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted using the private key, and data encrypted using the private key can only be decrypted with the public key. A PKI is a collection of software components and operational policies that govern the distribution and use of public and private keys. Private keys must never be transmitted over a network. Public keys are distributed in digital certificates. Certificates are issued by a certification authority (CA). You can run your own CA using Windows Server 2003, or you can obtain your certificates from a third-party commercial CA.
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Designing a Public Key Infrastructure
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Lesson 2: Designing a Public Key Infrastructure
As with most elements of a network, implementing a public key infrastructure requires
careful planning before you begin deployment. Planning a PKI typically consists of the
following basic steps:
Defining certificate requirements
Creating a certification authority infrastructure
Configuring certificates
After this lesson, you will be able to
List the types of certificates a Windows Server 2003 CA can issue Describe the structure of a CA hierarchy List the differences between enterprise and stand-alone CAs Configure certificate parameters
Estimated lesson time: 30 minutes
Defining Certificate Requirements
As in most phases of designing a network, the first step of the planning phase is to determine the requirements of the users. In the case of a PKI design, you must determine what your client s security needs are, how certificates can help provide that secu rity, which users, computers, services, and applications will use certificates, and what kinds of certificates your clients need. In many cases, you will have already answered some or all of these questions as you developed an overall security strategy. A PKI using computers running Windows Server 2003 can create certificates that support any or all of the following applications:
Digital signatures Used to confirm that the person sending a message, file, or other data is actually who he or she purports to be. Digital signatures do not pro tect the data itself from compromise; they only verify the identity of the sender. Encrypting File System user and recovery certificates The Windows Server 2003 Encrypting File System (EFS) enables users to store data on disk in encrypted form, to prevent other users from accessing it. To prevent loss of data resulting from users leaving the organization or losing their encryption keys, EFS allows designated recovery agents to create public keys that can decode the encrypted information. As with IPSec, EFS does not have to use the PKI for its encryption keys, but the use of a PKI simplifies managing EFS.
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Creating and Managing Digital Certificates
Internet authentication You can use the PKI to authenticate clients and serv ers as they establish connections over the Internet, so that servers can identify the clients connecting to them and clients can confirm that they are connecting to the correct servers. IP Security The IP Security extensions (IPSec) enable you to encrypt and digi tally sign communications, to prevent them from being compromised as they are transmitted over a network. The Windows Server 2003 IPSec implementation does not have to use a PKI to obtain its encryption keys, but you can use the PKI for this purpose. Secure e-mail Internet e-mail protocols transmit mail messages in plain text, making it relatively easy to intercept them and read their contents. With the PKI, you can secure e-mail communications by encrypting the actual message text using the recipient s public key, and you can digitally sign the messages using your private key. Smart card logon A smart card is a credit card-size device that contains mem ory and possibly an integrated circuit. Windows Server 2003 can use a smart card as an authentication device that verifies the identity of a user during logon. The smart card contains the user s certificate and private key, enabling the user to log on to any workstation in the enterprise with full security. Software code signing Microsoft s Authenticode technology uses certificates to confirm that the software users download and install actually comes from the pub lisher and has not been modified. Wireless network authentication The increasing popularity of wireless local area networking (LAN) technologies, such as those based on the 802.11 standard, raises an important security issue. When you install a wireless LAN, you must make sure that only authorized users can connect to the network and that no one can eavesdrop on the wireless communications. You can use the Windows Server 2003 PKI to protect a wireless network by identifying and authenticating users before they are granted access to the network.
Once you have decided what applications you want to secure with certificates, you can create a plan indicating the level of security for each user. For example, you might decide that you want everyone on your network to use secured e-mail, while only the Research and Development and Accounting departments need IPSec for all their network communications. Users locations can also be significant. You might want to use software code signing and Internet authentication for clients who connect to your network over the Internet, but omit these requirements for internal users. When defining the certificate security requirements for your network, the best practice is to create a small set of security definitions and apply them to your users and com puters as needed. For example, Table 11-1 shows a certificate plan for an organization that includes four levels of security: basic, medium, high, and external. The basic security
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