winforms ean 128 Securing Network Communications Using IPSec in Visual Basic .NET

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Securing Network Communications Using IPSec
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Lesson 2: Planning an IPSec Implementation
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Many of the Windows Server 2003 security mechanisms you have studied so far in this book are designed to protect valuable data, but few of them are capable of protecting data while it is in transit over the network. You can store your files in encrypted form using the Encrypting File System (EFS), for example, or an individual application might be able to protect files with a password, but when you access the file over the network or send it to someone else, your computer always decrypts it first. The IP Security extensions (IPSec) are a means of securing the actual network communications themselves, so that intruders cannot compromise your data by intercepting it as it travels over the network.
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After this lesson, you will be able to
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List the major threats to network communications Describe the functions of IPSec Understand the functions and architecture of the IPSec protocols
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Estimated lesson time: 30 minutes
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Evaluating Threats
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When you log on to an FTP server on your network, you have to supply a user name and a password to be granted access. The FTP client program you use probably does not display the password on the screen as you type it, but of course the password must be included in the data packets the client sends over the network to the FTP server. Figure 12-3 shows a screen capture from Microsoft Network Monitor, which is display ing the contents of an FTP packet that the program captured from the network.
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Figure 12-3 Network Monitor, displaying an FTP password
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Lesson 2
Planning an IPSec Implementation
12-15
In this packet, you can clearly see the password (which is password ) associated with the user account that the client is supplying to the server. If you are a network admin istrator, and you use the Administrator account to access the FTP server, someone cap turing the packets in this way could learn the Administrator password and possibly wreak havoc on the network. Not all applications transmit passwords in clear text this way, however. When you log on to Active Directory, for example, the computer transmits your password in encrypted form. This is just an example of how easy it is for unauthorized people to capture and access your data as it is being transmitted. A user running a protocol ana lyzer such as Network Monitor can capture the packets containing your data files, your e-mail messages, or other confidential communications, and reconstruct the data for their own use. There are many ways that unauthorized personnel can use this captured data against you, including the following:
Compromising keys In the same way that captured packets can contain passwords, they can also contain encryption keys. An intruder capturing a key can then decrypt any data using that key. The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) used on networks running Microsoft Windows is not threatened by this practice, because it uses separate public and private keys for encryption and decryption, and the pri vate keys are never transmitted over the network. However, other encryption sys tems use a single key to encrypt and decrypt data, and if an intruder captures that key, the entire security system is compromised. Spoofing Spoofing is digitally masquerading as another person by using cap tured IP addresses and other information. By capturing network packets, an intruder can discover an actual user s IP address, packet sequence numbers, and the other personal information needed to create new packets that to have origi nated from the actual user s computer. Using this method, the intruder can send messages in the victim s name, receive data that was meant for the victim, and even engage in financial or other transactions using the victim s accounts. Sometimes an attacker will simultaneously initiate a denial-of-service attack on the vic tim s computer to prevent the victim from sending any further messages while the attacker assumes the victim s identity.
Security Alert Even when you use applications that encrypt your passwords for transmis; sion, it is still sometimes possible for intruders to use those passwords by simply pasting the encrypted string into a spoofed message. Even though the intruder doesn t actually know what the password is, the authenticating system could decrypt it and accept it as genuine.
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