Planning a TCP/IP Network Infrastructure in VB.NET

Maker Data Matrix in VB.NET Planning a TCP/IP Network Infrastructure

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Planning a TCP/IP Network Infrastructure
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IP Addresses and Subnet Masks
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IP addresses are typically expressed using dotted decimal notation, in which an address consists of four integers often called quads, octets, or bytes between 0 and 255, separated by periods. Like an IP address, a subnet mask consists of 32 bits. In decimal form, the subnet mask appears much like an IP address. In binary form, each of the 32 bits has a value of 0 or 1. When you compare a subnet mask with an IP address, the address bits that correspond to the 1 bits in the mask are the network identifier bits. The address bits that correspond with the 0 bits in the mask are the host identifier bits. For example, a typical IP address and subnet mask, expressed in the decimal notation used when configuring a TCP/IP computer, appears as follows:
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IP address: 192.168.32.114 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
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When you convert the address and mask into binary notation, they appear as follows:
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IP address: 11000000 10101000 00100000 01110010 Subnet mask: 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
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Because the first 24 bits in the subnet mask have the value 1, this indicates that the first 24 bits in the IP address make up the network identifier. The final eight bits in the mask have the value 0, which means that the final eight bits in the address are the host identifier. If the subnet mask value were 255.255.0.0 instead, this would indicate that the network identifier and host identifier each consists of 16 bits. The division between the 1 and 0 bits can occur almost anywhere in the subnet mask, as long as both the network and host identifiers are each at least two bits long.
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Using Registered Addresses
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To prevent IP address duplication on the Internet, an administrative body called the IANA functions as the official IP address registrar. To connect computers directly to the Internet, you must obtain a network address from the IANA. A network address is just a network identifier. The administrators of the network using that identifier are responsible for assign ing unique host identifiers to the individual computers and other devices on the network. By combining the network identifier assigned by the IANA with a unique host identifier, the administrators are able to calculate the IP addresses for the computers on that network.
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Although the IANA ultimately assigns all Internet network addresses, network administrators today do not deal with the address registrar directly. Instead, they obtain a network address from an Internet service provider (ISP). The ISP might have obtained the network address from a local (LIR), national (NIR), or regional Internet registry (RIR) (which is assigned pools of addresses by the IANA directly), but it is also likely that the ISP obtained the address from its own service provider. Internet addresses often pass through several layers of service providers in this way before they get to the organization that actually uses them.
Lesson 1
Determining IP Addressing Requirements
Why Use Registered Addresses If you have computers on your network that you want to be accessible from the Internet (such as Web servers), you must configure them with IP addresses that the IANA has registered. This is because only registered addresses are visible from the Internet. For a user on the Internet to access your com pany Web server, a client application, such as a Web browser, must initiate communi cation by sending a request to the server. The browser can t do that if it doesn t have the server s address. (Users on your network who want to access Internet services do not require registered addresses; this matter is covered later in this lesson.) Why Not Use Registered Addresses Theoretically, you can use registered IP addresses for all the computers on your network, but this practice has two serious drawbacks:
It depletes the IP address space. If every device with an IP address today (which includes a great many mobile telephones, automobiles, and other devices, in addi tion to computers) had a registered IP address, the pool of available addresses would be well on its way to depletion. Even now, a program to expand the IP address space from 32 (called Internet Protocol Version 4 or IPv4) to 128 bits, called IPv6, is currently under way to prevent the possibility of depleting the entire IP address space in the future.
See Also For more information about IPv6, see Understanding IPv6 (Microsoft Press, 2003). Additionally, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has published a number of proposed Requests for Comments (RFC) standards that you can consult, such as RFC 2464 Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks.
Using registered IP addresses on a private network presents a serious security haz ard. Not only can a computer with a registered IP address access systems on the Internet, the systems on the Internet can also access the computer.
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