Routing and Network Topology Design in Visual Basic .NET

Print DataMatrix in Visual Basic .NET Routing and Network Topology Design

Routing and Network Topology Design
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In Lesson 3 of 1, Planning a Network Topology, you learned that network designers often split the network into a series of horizontal networks, each of which is connected to a backbone network using a router. This design pro vides an efficient routing solution. No matter how many horizontal networks you have in your installation, a transmitted packet never has to travel through more than two routers to get to any destination on the network (as shown in Figure 1-7). Each packet passes through one router to get from its origin network to the backbone and through a second router to get from the backbone to the destination network. Connecting the horizontal networks in series would require packets to pass through a separate router for each network they traverse. The number of LANs you create and the number of computers in each LAN depend on the data-link layer protocol you select for your network. Some proto cols have specific limitations on the number of computers they support on a sin gle LAN while others have implied limits based on other factors, such as the maximum number of hubs you can use. In many cases, however, a network s LAN configuration is based on geographical or political factors. For example, if you are designing a network for a multi-story office building, creating a separate LAN for each floor might be the most convenient solution. In other cases, design ers create a separate LAN for each department or division in the organization. Another advantage of routers is that they can connect networks running completely different protocols at the data-link layer. Whenever a packet arrives at a router, it trav els up through the protocol stack only as high as the network layer (see Figure 2-3). The router strips off the data-link layer frame from the packet and processes the IP datagram contained inside. When the router has determined how to forward the datagram to its next destination, it repackages the datagram in a new data-link layer frame prior to transmission. This new frame can be the same as, or different from, the original frame on the packet when it arrived on the router. So if your network infrastructure
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Lesson 2
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Planning an IP Routing Solution
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design calls for different data-link layer protocols or different network media to satisfy the requirements of different users, you can connect those different networks using routers. You can connect two different types of Ethernet, such as connecting a 100Base-TX Fast Ethernet horizontal LAN (using Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable) to a 1000Base-SX Gigabit Ethernet backbone (using fiber-optic cable), or even connecting an Ethernet LAN to a Token Ring LAN.
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Session
Transport
Transport
Network
Network
Network
Data-link
Data-link
Data-link
Physical
Physical
Physical
Figure 2-3
A router processing network traffic
Creating WANs
In addition to connecting LANs, routers can also connect a LAN to a WAN connection, enabling you to join networks at different locations. This is the most common applica tion for routers today. Every network connected to the Internet uses a router to connect the private network to an ISP s network. The ISP in turn has its own routers that provide the connection to the Internet. Even a simple Windows computer using the Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) feature is functioning as a router. Some network installations also use routers and WAN connections to join distant offices. For example, a branch office might be connected to corporate headquarters using a T-1 line, which is a permanent, digital telephone connection between the two sites. To connect the networks at those sites, each one has a router connecting it to one end of the T-1, as shown in Figure 2-4. The T-1 itself then becomes a two-node network, connecting the two remote LANs. A computer at one site that has to send traffic to a computer at the other site sends its packets to the router on the local network. The router then forwards the packets over the T-1 to the router at the other site. The second router then forwards the packets to the LAN in the other office.
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