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Planning If you need only a few registered addresses, you can obtain them singly from your
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ISP along with an appropriate subnet mask, although you will almost certainly have to pay an extra monthly fee for them. If the computers requiring the registered address are all on the same LAN and must communicate with each other, be sure that you obtain addresses in the same subnet. If you need a large number of registered IP addresses, you can obtain a network address from the ISP and use it to create as many host addresses as you need.
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A network address is the network identifier portion of an IP address plus a subnet mask. For example, if your ISP were to assign you the network address 192.168.65.0, with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, you can assign IP addresses ranging from 192.168.65.1 to 192.168.65.254 to your computers. The network address you receive from the ISP depends on the class of the address and on the number of computers you have requiring registered addresses.
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Off the Record In practice, the network address your ISP assigns you will not be part of the private address range used in this example. Also, it will probably be more complex than the address shown here, because the ISP will be assigning you only a small portion of the addresses assigned to them.
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Planning a TCP/IP Network Infrastructure
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Understanding IP Address Classes
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The IANA divides the IP address space into three basic classes. Each class provides a different number of possible network and host identifiers, and therefore, each is suitable for installations of a specific size. The three classes, and the relative sizes of the network and host identifiers, are shown in Figure 2-5.
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8 16 24
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Class A
Network Identifier
Host Identifier
Class B
Network Identifier
Host Identifier
Class C
Network Identifier
Host Identifier
Figure 2-5 IP address classes
Table 2-1 provides additional information about each of the address classes, including the value of the first binary bits and the first decimal byte in each class. The value of the first bits and first byte are what you use to determine the class of a particular network address. The table also specifies the number of bits in the network and host iden tifiers for each class, as well as the number of possible addresses you can create with each identifier.
Table 2-1
IP Address Classes
Class A 0 1 127 8 24 126 16,777,214 255.0.0.0 Class B 10 128 191 16 16 16,384 65,534 255.255.0.0 Class C 110 192 223 24 8 2,097,152 254 255.255.255.0
IP Address Class First bit values (binary) First byte value (decimal) Number of network identifier bits Number of host identifier bits Number of possible networks Number of possible hosts Subnet mask
Lesson 3
Planning an IP Addressing and Subnetting Strategy
2-27
To compute the number of possible addresses you can create with a given number of bits, you use the formula 2x 2, where x is the number of bits. You subtract two because the original IP addressing standard states that you cannot use the values consisting of all zeros and all ones for network or host addresses. Most routers and operating sys tems, including Windows Server 2003, now enable you to use all zeros for a network or subnet identifier, but you must be sure that all your equipment supports these values before you decide to use them.
Exam Tip
Be sure to familiarize yourself with the information in Table 2-1, especially the number of possible networks and hosts available for the three IP address classes, and with the formula for computing the number of possible addresses. It is common for the exam to contain questions requiring you to know how many network or host identifier bits are required for a given installation.
In Lesson 1, you learned about the IP address ranges designated by the IANA for use by private networks. Each of the three ranges corresponds to one of the IP address classes, as follows:
Class A: 10.0.0.0 through 10.25.255.255 Class B: 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255 Class C: 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255
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