The Process of Troubleshooting Network Problems in Visual C#

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The Process of Troubleshooting Network Problems
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CHapTER 31
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To test for connectivity to DNS traffic, install PortQry, and then run the following command .
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portqry -n DNS_server_name_or_IP_address -p UDP -e 53
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If PortQry can connect to the specified DNS server, it will respond with LISTENING . If PortQry cannot connect, it will respond with LISTENING OR FILTERED . After displaying LISTENING OR FILTERED, PortQry will attempt to issue a DNS request to the remote computer and then will display whether the server responded to the request . If you prefer graphical tools, you can use the PortQueryUI tool to query for UDP port 53, as shown in Figure 31-7 .
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FIgURE 31-7 PortqryUI provides a GUI that you can use to test DNS connectivity .
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How to Use the Hosts File
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You can use the Hosts file as another name resolution method . You might do this if you know that your DNS server is unavailable or the database is out of date, you need to access a server, and you know the server s IP address . It s also useful when you ve recently installed a new server and you want to contact it using a host name before the DNS database is updated .
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CHapTER 31 Troubleshooting Network Issues
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Although you can typically contact servers using their IP addresses, Web sites often need to be reached using the correct host name, and IP addresses might not work . Your Hosts file is located at %WinDir%\System32\Drivers\Etc\Hosts . It is a text file, and you can edit it using Notepad . To open the Hosts file, run Notepad using administrative permissions . Then, open the Notepad %WinDir%\System32\Drivers\Etc\Hosts file (it does not have a file extension) . To add an entry to the Hosts file to enable name resolution without using DNS, add lines to the bottom of the Hosts file, as demonstrated here for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses .
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192.168.1.10 www.microsoft.com 10.15.33.25 www.contoso.com 2001:db8::1 www.microsoft.com
After updating the Hosts file, you can contact servers by using the host name . When an entry is in the Hosts file, Windows will use the associated IP address without contacting a DNS server . In fact, the only application that bypasses the Hosts file is Nslookup, which always contacts DNS servers directly . Remember to remove entries from the Hosts file after you finish using them; otherwise, you might have name resolution problems later if the server s IP address changes .
How to Troubleshoot performance problems and Intermittent Connectivity Issues
Often, network problems don t result in total loss of connectivity . Network problems also can be file transfers that take longer than they should for your network bandwidth, jumpy streaming audio and video, or extremely unresponsive network applications . To troubleshoot network performance problems, you must first identify the source of the problem . Several different components can cause performance problems:
The local computer Your local computer might have an application that is using all of the processor s time, thus slowing down everything on your computer, including networking . Alternatively, failing hardware or problematic drivers can cause performance problems or intermittent failures . To solve these problems, you can stop or reduce the impact of problematic applications, replace hardware, or upgrade drivers . The network infrastructure Overutilized routers cause increased latency and dropped packets, both of which can cause performance problems and intermittent failures . Routing problems, such as routing loops, can cause traffic to be routed through an unnecessarily long path, increasing network latency . Sometimes, such as when you are using a satellite link, latency and the performance problems caused by latency are unavoidable . Although solving network infrastructure problems is outside the scope of this book, you can identify the source of the problem so that you can escalate the problem to the correct support team . For information about how Windows adapts to provide the best possible performance over different types of links, see 25 .
The Process of Troubleshooting Network Problems
CHapTER 31
The server If the server is overutilized, all network communication to that server will suffer performance problems . Solving server performance problems is outside the scope of this book . However, when you have identified the source of the problem, you can escalate it to the correct support team .
To identify the source of a network performance problem, follow these steps . After each step, test your network performance to determine whether the problem still exists .
Start Task Manager by right-clicking the taskbar, clicking Task Manager, and then clicking the Performance tab . If processor utilization is near 100 percent, that might cause the perceived network performance problem . Click the Processes tab, find the process that is using the processor time, and close it . In Task Manager, click the Networking tab . This tab shows a chart for each network adapter installed in the computer . If network utilization is near the practical capacity of the network link, that is the cause of your performance problem . For wired Ethernet networks (such as 10 megabits-per-second [Mbps], 100-Mbps, or 1,000-Mbps links), utilization cannot typically exceed about 60 to 70 percent of the link speed . For wireless networks, utilization cannot exceed about 50 percent of the link speed . However, wireless utilization often peaks at much lower than 50 percent of the link speed, so even 15 or 20 percent utilization may indicate that your performance problems are caused by insufficient bandwidth on the wireless network . To identify the source of the bandwidth, click the Performance tab in Task Manager and then click Resource Monitor . In Resource Monitor, expand the Network section, as shown in Figure 31-8 . Identify the process that is creating the most bandwidth, the PID, and the destination server . You can then return to Task Manager to identify the specific process creating the network bandwidth . Stop the process to determine whether it is the cause of your performance problems .
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