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(which provides access to the volume) . Therefore, applications and users are not aware of encryption when everything is functioning normally .
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FIgURE 16-12 The FVE Filter Driver transparently
encrypts and decrypts disk contents .
Encrypting and decrypting data do affect performance . While reading from and writing to a BitLocker-encrypted volume, some processor time will be consumed by the cryptographic operations performed by BitLocker . The actual impact depends on several factors, including caching mechanisms, hard drive speed, and processor performance . However, Microsoft has put great effort into implementing an efficient AES engine so that the performance impact on modern computers is minimal .
How BitLocker protects Data
Before BitLocker grants access to the FVEK and the encrypted volume, it needs to obtain a key from the authorized user and/or the computer . If the computer has a TPM chip, authentication can happen in several different ways . If the computer doesn t have a TPM chip, you can use only a USB key . The sections that follow describe the different authentication techniques .
TpM (Use BitLocker Without additional Keys)
BitLocker uses the TPM to unlock the VMK . The Windows startup process uses the TPM to verify that the hard disk is attached to the correct computer (and thus, the hard disk has not been removed) and that important system files are intact (preventing access to the hard drive if malware or a rootkit has compromised system integrity) . When the computer is validated, TPM unlocks the VMK, and Windows 7 can start without prompting the user, as illustrated in
BitLocker Drive Encryption CHapTER 16
Figure 16-13 . This validation technique provides some level of protection without affecting the user at all .
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Volume master key
Full volume encryption key
Unencrypted data
FIgURE 16-13 TPM-only authentication validates computer integrity without prompting the user .
TpM with External Key (Require Startup USB Key at Every Startup)
In addition to the protection described in the previous paragraph, the TPM requires an external key provided by the user (see Figure 16-14) . This requires the user to insert a USB flash drive (or any other BIOS-enumerable storage device) containing the key, effectively authenticating both the user and the integrity of the computer . This can protect the data in the event the computer is stolen while the computer is shut down or in hibernation; resuming from standby does not require BitLocker protection . For this authentication technique to be effective, the user must store the external key separately from the computer to reduce the risk that they will be stolen simultaneously .
note
an excellent way to prevent yourself from losing your startup key and to avoid
leaving it connected to your computer is to connect your USB startup key to your key ring. If you leave the USB key connected, it is more likely to be stolen with the computer, and malicious software might be able to copy the key.
USB key
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Volume master key
Full volume encryption key
Unencrypted data
FIgURE 16-14 For better security, require users to insert a USB flash drive to authenticate them to TPM .
TpM with pIN (Require pIN at Every Startup)
This requirement prevents the computer from starting until the user types a personal identification number (PIN), as illustrated in Figure 16-15 . This helps to protect the data in the event the computer is stolen while shut down . You should never use PINs to protect computers that need to start automatically without a human present, such as computers that are configured to start up for maintenance or backup purposes or computers that act as servers .
CHapTER 16
Managing Disks and File Systems
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Volume master key
Full volume encryption key
Unencrypted data
FIgURE 16-15 For better security, require users to type a PIN to authenticate them to TPM .
note
Be sure to change your pIN frequently. although Trusted Computing Group
(TCG) compliant TpMs offer protection from password-guessing attacks by forcing the user to wait between attempts, laptop keys show wear. This is especially true if you enter the pIN using your rarely used function keys (on most keyboards, you can use the standard number keys as well). If you use the same pIN for years, the keys in your pIN may show more wear than other keys, allowing a sophisticated attacker to guess the characters in your pIN, thus reducing the number of keys the attacker needs to guess. To minimize this risk further, use a long pIN and use the same key multiple times in your pIN.
When requiring a PIN, the computer s TPM hardware forces a non-resettable delay between PIN entry attempts (the exact delay varies between TPM vendors) . Because of this delay, a four-digit PIN might take an entire year to crack . Without this delay, a random four-digit PIN could be cracked in less than a day . Because of this password-guessing weakness when a delay is not enforced by TPM, BitLocker does not allow PIN authentication on computers that do not have TPM hardware . HoW it WoRKS
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