zxing generate qr code example c# FIgURE 25-10 The TCP receive window size setting can significantly affect throughput . in Visual C#

Maker QR-Code in Visual C# FIgURE 25-10 The TCP receive window size setting can significantly affect throughput .

FIgURE 25-10 The TCP receive window size setting can significantly affect throughput .
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Windows Vista and Windows 7 include an auto-tuning capability for TCP receive window size that is enabled by default . Every TCP connection can benefit in terms of increased throughput and decreased transfer times, but high-bandwidth, high-latency connections will benefit the most . Therefore, Receive Window Auto-Tuning can benefit network performance significantly across both satellite and WAN links . However, performance on high-speed LANs where latency is very low will benefit less .
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Core Networking Improvements CHapTER 25 1193
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Receive Window Auto-Tuning continually determines the optimal receive window size on a per-connection basis by measuring the bandwidth-delay product (the bandwidth multiplied by the latency of the connection) and the application retrieve rate, and it automatically adjusts the maximum receive window size on an ongoing basis . For auto-tuning to dramatically improve the throughput on a connection, all of the following conditions must be true:
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For example, RTTs of greater than 100 ms . For example, greater than 5 Mbps .
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Application does not specify a receive buffer size Some applications may explicitly specify a receive buffer size, which would override the Windows default behavior . This can offer similar benefits on older versions of Windows, but changing the receive buffer size is uncommon . Application consumes data quickly after receiving them If an application does not immediately retrieve the received data, Receive Window Auto-Tuning may not increase overall performance . For example, if the application retrieves received data from TCP only periodically rather than continually, overall performance might not increase .
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When TCP considers increasing the receive window size, it pays attention to the connection s past history and characteristics . TCP won t advertise more than the remote host s fair share of network bandwidth . This keeps the advertised receive window in line with the remote host s congestion window, discouraging network congestion while encouraging maximum utilization of the available bandwidth .
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TCP Receive Window Scaling
he ability to increase the receive window would be meaningless without window scaling. On its own, TCp allows a window size of only 64 KB. Operating
systems back through Windows Xp use this as their default value on fast links. The window scaling option is a way for window sizes to scale to megabytes and beyond. Starting with Windows Vista, window scaling is used by default. During connection establishment, use of the window scaling option is negotiated with the remote host. If supported by the remote side, window scaling is enabled on the connection. Windows Vista and Windows 7 use a scale factor of 8, which means that the advertised receive window value should be multiplied by 256. Therefore, Receive Window auto-Tuning uses a maximum receive window size of 16 MB.
The Windows Vista and Windows 7 TCP/IP stacks support the following RFCs to optimize throughput in high-loss environments:
RFC 2582: The NewReno Modification to TCP s Fast Recovery Algorithm The NewReno algorithm provides faster throughput by changing the way that a sender can increase the sending rate when multiple segments in a window of data are lost and
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the sender receives a partial acknowledgment (an acknowledgment for only part of the data that is successfully received) . You can find this RFC at http://www.ietf.org/rfc /rfc2582.txt .
RFC 2883: An Extension to the Selective Acknowledgment (SACK) Option for TCP SACK, defined in RFC 2018, allows a receiver to indicate up to four noncontiguous blocks of received data . RFC 2883 defines an additional use of the fields in the SACK TCP option to acknowledge duplicate packets . This allows the receiver of the TCP segment containing the SACK option to determine when it has retransmitted a segment unnecessarily and adjust its behavior to prevent future retransmissions . The fewer retransmissions sent, the better the overall throughput . You can find this RFC at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2883.txt . RFC 3168: The Addition of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP If a packet is lost in a TCP session, TCP assumes that it is caused by network congestion . In an attempt to alleviate the source of the problem, TCP lowers the sender s transmission rate . With ECN support on both TCP peers and in the routing infrastructure, routers experiencing congestion mark the packets as they forward them . This enables computers to lower their transmission rate before packet loss occurs, increasing the throughput . Windows Vista and Windows 7 support ECN, but it is disabled by default . You can enable ECN support with the following command .
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