TRY IT NOW Try running this three-cmdlet command line, keeping in mind in Visual Basic .NET

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that you should type the whole thing on a single line. Notice how the output is different from the normal output of Get-Process When PowerShell sees that it s reached the end of the command line, it has to decide how to lay out the text output. Because there are no longer any process objects in the pipeline, PowerShell won t use the default rules and configurations that apply to process objects. Instead, it looks for rules and configurations for a PSObject, which is what the pipeline now contains. Microsoft didn t provide any rules or configurations for PSObjects, because they re meant to be used for custom output. So, PowerShell takes its best guess and produces a table, on the theory that those three pieces of information will still probably fit in a table. The table isn t as nicely laid out as the normal output of Get-Process, though, because the shell lacks the additional configuration information needed to make a nicer-looking table. You can use Gm to see the different objects that wind up in the pipeline. Remember, you can stick Gm in after any cmdlet that produces output:
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Get-Process | Sort VM -descending | gm Get-Process | Sort VM -descending | Select Name,ID,VM | gm
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TRY IT NOW Try running those two command lines separately, and notice the
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difference in the output. Notice that, as part of the Gm output, it shows you the type name for the object it saw in the pipeline. In the first case, that was a System.Diagnostics.Process object, but in the second case the pipeline contains a different kind of object. Those new selected objects only contained the three properties specified Name, ID, and VM plus a couple of system-generated members. Even Gm produces objects and places them into the pipeline! After running Gm, the pipeline no longer contained either process or the selected objects; it contained the type of object produced by Gm: Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.MemberDefinition. You can prove that by piping the output of Gm to Gm itself:
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Get-Process | Gm | Gm
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TRY IT NOW You ll definitely want to try this, and think hard about it to make
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sure it makes sense to you. You start with Get-Process, which puts process objects into the pipeline. Those go to Gm, which analyzes them and produces its own MemberDefinition objects. Those are then piped to Gm, which analyzes them and produces output that lists the members of a MemberDefinition object.
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Objects: just data by another name
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A real key in mastering PowerShell is learning to keep track of what kind of object is in the pipeline at any given point. Gm can help you do that, but sitting back and verbally walking yourself through the command line is also a good exercise that can help clear up confusion.
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Common points of confusion
There are a few common mistakes that my classroom students tend to make as they get started with PowerShell. Most of these go away with a little bit of experience, but I ll direct your attention to them so that you can catch yourself if you start heading down the wrong path.
Remember that the PowerShell help files don t contain information on objects properties. You ll need to pipe the objects to Gm (Get-Member) to see a list of properties. Remember that you can add Gm to the end of any pipeline that normally produces results. A command line like Get-Process -name Notepad | Stop-Process doesn t normally produce results, so tacking | Gm onto the end won t produce anything either. Start paying attention to neat typing. Put a space on either side of every pipeline character, so that your command lines read like Get-Process | Gm and not Get-Process|Gm. That spacebar key is extra-large for a reason use it! Always remember that the pipeline can contain different types of objects at each step. Think about what type of object is in the pipeline, and focus on what the next command will do to that type of object.
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