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Protocol logging tracks the steps that occur in SMTP conversations to transfer messages between Exchange and other servers. The logging is at a lower level than tracking the connections, because it captures details such as the authentication between servers and the SMTP verbs used in the conversations. The approach taken to the management of protocol logging and the logs that are generated is very similar to connectivity logging. This shouldn t come as a surprise because it wouldn t make sense for the engineering group to create multiple methods for generating and managing logs. Protocol logging is disabled by default, so you have to enable logging on a per-connector basis before Exchange will generate logs. Exchange generates separate logs for SMTP send and for SMTP receive operations. Like connectivity logging, the output is in CSV format. Figure 13-25 illustrates typical content from an SMTP receive log (some steps have been removed from this extract for the sake of clarity). The example shows how two Exchange hub transport servers set up an SMTP connection to each other to exchange messages. After the normal SMTP interchange of supported verbs, the connection is authenticated with TLS and then the sending server begins to transmit the message header fields, beginning with the sender information (MAIL FROM). The receiving server validates that the recipient is OK by checking that the sender is not blocked (the recipient might be a restricted address that only accepts messages from a defined set of senders). You can also see the new XSHADOW ESMTP (extended SMTP) verb used to send information for the shadow redundancy feature of the transport dumpster. The message content with a binary transfer (BDAT) and the conversation is terminated with a XQDISCARD verb (not shown here). This is another ESMTP verb introduced in Exchange 2010 to support the shadow redundancy mechanism. See the section Transport pipeline later in this chapter for more information about how shadow redundancy works. The final step disconnects the link between the two servers.
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Figure 13-25 Interpreting an SMTP receive log.
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The content of a send log is very similar. For example, if you look at the transactions generated to send a message via an external SMTP relay, you will see Exchange identify itself with EHLO, create a TLS-secured connection if this is supported by the relay server, send the message, and close the link. The first question we must resolve when we decide how to configure protocol logging is what connectors should have logging enabled. Every hub transport server has two default receive connectors: one to monitor port 25 and accept incoming SMTP messages from other servers, and one to monitor port 587 and handle messages sent by clients. We can enable logging for both as follows:
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Get-ReceiveConnector Server ExServer1 | Set-ReceiveConnector ProtocolLoggingLevel Verbose
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To turn off protocol logging, we set the logging level to None. Of course, you don t have to set logging for both connectors. To set logging on just the connector that handles SMTP server-based traffic, you d use a command like this:
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Set-ReceiveConnector Identity 'ExServer1\Default ExServer1' ProtocolLoggingLevel Verbose
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13 The Exchange Transport System
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Much the same occurs to enable protocol logging for send connectors. There are two types of send connectors: Explicit or normal send connectors are defined to handle traffic to specified SMTP domains; and Exchange also creates a special intraorganization send connector on every hub transport server to send messages within the organization. You can enable protocol logging for a normal connector as follows:
Set-SendConnector Identity 'Smart Relay via contoso.com' ProtocolLoggingLevel Verbose
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Because you don t have an identifier to pass to identify the intraorganization send connector, you can t configure protocol logging for it using Set-SendConnector. Instead, you use the Set-TransportServer cmdlet as follows:
Set-TransportServer Identity ExServer1 IntraOrgConnectorProtocolLoggingLevel Verbose
The Set-TransportServer cmdlet is also used to specify the location of the send and receive logs, the maximum size of each log (default 10 MB), the overall size of the log directory, and the age limit for the logs. The location for the protocol log directory is the only setting that you can configure with EMC. Just like connectivity logs, Exchange uses a circular logging mechanism to keep the protocol logs under these thresholds. The following command shows how to configure the various settings:
Set-TransportServer Identity ExServer2 ReceiveProtocolLogPath 'C:\Logs\SMTPReceive' SendProtocolLogPath 'C:\Logs\SMTPSend' ReceiveProtocolLogMaxFileSize 20MB SendProtocolLogMaxFileSize 20MB ReceiveProtocolLogMaxDirectorySize 500MB SendProtocolLogMaxDirectorySize 500MB ReceiveProtocolLogMaxAge 15:00.00.00 SendProtocolLogMaxAge 15:00.00.00
As with connectivity logging, it is best practice to use the same settings for all hub transport servers in the organization. This is easily accomplished as described in the last section: Configure the connectivity log settings by using Get-TransportServer to fetch a list of all hub transport servers and use that list as input to Set-TransportServer to implement the settings.
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