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THE POKER .CARD CLASS
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We ll start with a simple version of the game consisting initially of just a couple of classes to represent playing cards and hands. Later in this chapter, we ll explore the design of the distributed, 3-tier version of video poker.
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Designing the Card class It s pretty obvious that we re going to need a class to represent a playing card, and a class to represent a hand. In fact, that s all we need to get a simple game engine up and running. Figure 3.2 depicts some sample card objects. The card class will have three public properties, Number, Suit, and Name. A card s number can range from 2 to 14 and its suit will be an integer ranging from 1 to 4 representing clubs, diamonds, hearts, and spades in alphabetical order. We ll use
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CASE STUDY: A VIDEO POKER MACHINE
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Example Card objects
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the two-character identifier for the card s name. This simple scheme supports the efficient generation of random cards with a user-friendly way to display them as text. 3.2.2 Coding the Card class Before we code the Card class, we observe that card objects are immutable. As in a real game, once a card is drawn from the deck, its number, suit, or name cannot be altered. Therefore, we can gain a little in both efficiency and simplicity by implementing a card s properties as public, read-only fields. We ll need the ability to construct random playing cards to simulate dealing and drawing cards from the deck. We ll also need the ability to construct specific playing cards on demand. The code for the Card class is presented in listing 3.1.
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Listing 3.1 The Poker.Card class
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using System.Reflection; [assembly:AssemblyVersion("1.0.0.0")] namespace Poker { using System; internal class Card { public Card() : this(new Random()) {} public Card(Random r) { Number = r.Next(2, 15); Suit = r.Next(1, 5); Name = numberArray[Number - 2] + suitArray[Suit - 1]; } public Card(string name) { string n = name.Substring(0, 1); string s = name.Substring(1, 1); Number = numberString.IndexOf(n) + 2; Suit = suitString.IndexOf(s) + 1; Name = name; } public readonly int Number; public readonly int Suit; public readonly string Name; public override string ToString() {
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THE POKER.CARD CLASS
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return Name; } public override bool Equals(object o) { try { Card c = (Card)o; return c.Number == Number && c.Suit == Suit; } catch (Exception) { return false; } } public override int GetHashCode() { return (Suit<<4) + Number; } // private fields... private static string[] numberArray = {"2","3","4","5","6","7","8","9","T","J","Q","K","A"}; private static string[] suitArray = {"C","D","H","S"}; private static string numberString = "23456789TJQKA"; private static string suitString = "CDHS"; } }
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The Card class begins by specifying the version number of the Poker assembly where the Card class will reside. We could specify this in any of the source files which make up the assembly and choose to do so here only for convenience. We place the code for the Card, and all other poker classes, inside a new namespace called Poker. We also specify internal access to the Card class, as it should be accessible only to a Hand object within the same assembly. The Card class contains three constructors. The default constructor simply creates a new random number generator and calls the second constructor. To facilitate the generation of a valid pseudorandom sequence when dealing cards, we ll typically use the second constructor and pass a random number generator from the calling application. This constructor uses the private numberArray and suitArray as look up tables to create the Name. The third constructor accepts a card name as an argument and builds the corresponding Card object. This allows us to create specific cards to order when necessary. The rest of the Card class should look familiar. We override Equals to return true if the two cards have the same number and suit. Therefore, we should override GetHashCode to ensure that cards, which are equal, hash to the same code. In this case, we combine number and suit into a single unique integer hash code. We also override ToString to display the card s name. That completes the Card class. It provides us with a means of creating cards, displaying them on the console, comparing them for equality, and storing them in a hash table.
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