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Smart Client Architecture and Design Guide
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Long-term data caching. Caching data in a persistent medium, such as isolated storage or the local file system, allows you to use the application when there is no connectivity to the server. You may choose to combine long-term storage with short-term storage to improve performance.
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Regardless of the caching mechanisms you adopt, you should ensure that only data to which the user has access is made available to the client. Also, sensitive data cached on the client requires careful handling to ensure that it is kept secure. Therefore, you may need to encrypt the data as it is transferred to the client and as it is stored on the client. For more information, see Handling Sensitive Data in 5, Security Considerations. As you design your smart client to support data caching, you should consider providing a mechanism for your client to request fresh data, regardless of the state of the cache. This means that you can be sure that the application is ready to perform new transactions without using stale data. You may also configure your client to pre-fetch data so that it can mitigate the risk of being offline when cached data expires. Wherever possible, you should associate some form of metadata with the data to enable the client to manage the data in an intelligent way. Such metadata can be used to specify the data s identity and any constraints or desired behaviors associated with the data. Your client-side caching infrastructure should consume this metadata and use it to handle the cached data appropriately. All data that is cached on the client should be uniquely identifiable (for example, through a version number or date stamp), so that it can be properly identified when determining whether it needs to be updated. Your caching infrastructure is then able to ask the server whether the data that it has is currently valid and determine if any updates are required. Metadata can also be used to specify constraints or behaviors that relate to the usage and handling of the cached data. Examples include: Temporal constraints. These constraints specify the time or date range in which the cached data can be used. When the data becomes stale or expires, it can be dropped from the cache or automatically refreshed by obtaining the latest data from the server. In some cases, it may be appropriate to let the client use out-ofdate reference data and map it to up-to-date data when it is synchronized with the server. Geographic constraints. Some data may be appropriate only for a particular region. For example, you may have different price lists for different locations. Your caching infrastructure can be used to access and store data on a per-location basis. Security requirements. Data that is specifically intended for a particular user can be encrypted to ensure that only the appropriate user can access it. In this case, the data is provided already encrypted, and the user has to provide the credentials to the caching infrastructure to allow the data to be decrypted.
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2: Handling Data
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Business rules. You may have business rules associated with your cached data that dictate how it should be used. For example, your caching infrastructure may take into consideration the role of the user to determine what data is provided to him or her and how it is handled.
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The metadata associated with the data enables your caching infrastructure to handle the data appropriately so that your application does not have to be concerned with data caching issues or implementation details. You can pass the metadata associated with the reference data within the data itself, or you can use an out-of-band mechanism. The exact mechanism used to transport the metadata to the client depends on how your application communicates with the network services. When using Web services, using SOAP headers to communicate the metadata to the client is a good solution. The differences between read-only reference data and transient data sometimes mean that you need to use two caches, one for reference data and one for transient data. Reference data is read-only on the client and does not need to be synchronized back with the server, but it does need to be refreshed occasionally to reflect any changes and updates made on the server. Transient data can be changed on the client as well as the server. With data in the cache being updated sometimes on the client, sometimes on the server, and sometimes on both, any changes made to the data on the client need to be synchronized with the server at some point. If the data has changed on the server in the meantime, a data conflict occurs and needs to be handled appropriately. To help ensure that data consistency is maintained, and to avoid using data inappropriately, you should be careful to keep track of any changes that you make to transient data on the client. Such changes are uncommitted or tentative until they are successfully synchronized or confirmed with the server. You should design your smart client application so that it can differentiate between data that has been successfully synchronized with the server and data that is still tentative. This distinction helps your application detect and handle data conflicts more easily. Also, you may want to restrict the application or the user from making important decisions or initiating important actions based on tentative data. Such data should not be relied on until it has been synchronized with the server. By using an appropriate caching infrastructure, you can keep track of tentative and confirmed data.
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