Creating Game Components in .NET framework

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Creating Game Components
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Implementing an Interface
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When a class implements an interface, it is saying, I can do these things. In other words, it contains public versions of all the methods described in the interface. You can regard an interface as a kind of resume if you like. My resume says that I can teach computer science. This means that you can stand me in front of a class and call my StartTeaching method, and I do something in response. You could replace me with any other teacher, or perhaps even a robot, or anything that also has teach computer science on its resume because you know that means it contains the required method. Note The nterface doesn t say anyth ng about what the methods actua y do (any more than
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me hav ng computer sc ence teacher on my resume says how I w teach my c ass); t says on y that the object conta ns them If we want to prove that a component can prov de the expected behav ors appropr ate y, we have to create tests for these methods
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References to Interfaces
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From the programming point of view, this means that we can now refer to objects in terms of what they can do, as opposed to what they are. We can refer to an object of type BreadAndCheeseGame by using a reference of type BreadAndCheeseGame. But we can also refer to such an object by using a reference of type ISpriteBasedGame. A reference of type ISpriteBasedGame can refer to any object that implements the interface. The compiler is quite happy with this. It knows that if it needs to use any of the methods in the interface, they are there, and it doesn t need to care precisely what type of object the instance actually is. The Update method in the sprites is now passed a reference to the ISpriteBasedGame so that it can use the methods it provides. For example, here is the Update method in the TitleSprite class:
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public override void Update(ISpriteBasedGame game) { if (game.GetGamePad().Buttons.Start == ButtonState.Pressed) { game.StartGame(); } }
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This Update method reads the gamepad of the game using the GetGamepad method and calls the StartGame method if it is time to start the game. It doesn t know exactly what it is being given to work with, but it does know that the object that the game parameter refers to contains the GetGamePad and StartGame methods because the game reference is only allowed to refer to objects that implement the interface.
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Part III Writing Proper Games
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Linking Bread, Cheese, and Tomatoes
Earlier versions of the Bread and Cheese game used the game class itself to link the Bat, Ball, and Target classes. In other words, when the ball wanted to find out if it had collided with the bat, it would access the BreadAndCheeseGame class to get a hold of the reference to the breadBat that is stored within the game. You are trying to make the behavior of the bat, ball, and targets independent of the game they are part of, and to do this you need to couple the bat, ball, and targets together, and not have them use the game to find each other. This means that the constructor of the ball must now be passed a reference to the bat and the targets it must interact with so that it can store these for use later. This is actually quite sensible design, in that it makes the coupling more direct; rather than coupling via a third party, the bat, ball, and targets are directly connected.
Designing with Interfaces
Interfaces provide a very neat solution to the problem of wanting to reuse our sprites in the AlienWarsGame game. If the AlienWarsGame class implements the ISpriteBasedGame interface, the sprites can be used with that game. Our sprites can work with any class that implements the ISpriteBasedGame interface. You could also create an interface that works the other way. An ISprite interface would have all the methods required to control a sprite. This would make it possible to plug any kind of sprite into a game, not just ones that are children of the BaseSprite class. The Great Programmer Speaks: Interfaces Are Very Useful The Great Programmer uses
nterfaces a ot when she des gns her programs When she has dec ded what objects are needed to mp ement a so ut on, she next works out how they need to commun cate w th each other and creates nterfaces based on these nteract ons The resu t s that she can p ug n new vers ons, or even p ug n test vers ons, of objects very eas y
Sample Code: 05 Bread and Cheese with Interfaces The samp e project n the 05 Bread and Cheese w th Interfaces d rectory n the resources for th s chapter conta ns a vers on of the game that uses nterfaces to connect the game spr tes w th the game of wh ch they are a part
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