Working with Time Zones in .NET framework

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Working with Time Zones
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The .NET Framework supports time-zone information via the System.TimeZone object, which you can use to retrieve information about the time zone set in Windows regional settings:
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Get the TimeZone object for the current time zone.
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Dim tz As TimeZone = TimeZone.CurrentTimeZone
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Display name of time zone, without and with daylight saving time.
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(I got these results by running this code in Italy.)
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Console.WriteLine(tz.StandardName) => W. Europe Standard Time
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Console.WriteLine(tz.DaylightName) => W. Europe Daylight Time
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The most interesting piece of information here is the offset from Universal time (UTC), which you retrieve by means of the GetUTCOffset method. You must pass a date argu ment to this method because the offset depends on whether daylight-saving time is in effect. The returned value is in ticks:
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Display the time offset of W. Europe time zone when no daylight saving time is active. Console.WriteLine(tz.GetUTCOffset(New Date(2001, Display the time offset of W. Europe time zone when daylight saving time is active. Console.WriteLine(tz.GetUTCOffset(New Date(2001, in March 2001, 3, 1))) => 01:00:00 in July, 7, 1))) => 02:00:00
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The IsDaylightSavingTime method returns True if daylight-saving time is in effect:
No daylight-saving time in March Console.WriteLine(tz.IsDaylightSavingTime(New Date(2001, 3, 1))) => False
Finally, you can determine when daylight-saving time starts and ends in a given year by retrieving an array of DaylightTime objects with the TimeZone s GetDaylightChanges method:
Retrieve the DaylightTime object for year 2001.
Dim dlc As System.Globalization.DaylightTime = tz.GetDaylightChanges(2001)
Note that you might get different start and end dates if you
Part III:
Programming the .NET Framework
run this code in a country other than the United States. Console.WriteLine( Starts at & dlc.Start) => Starts at 4/1/2001 2:00:00 AM Console.WriteLine( Ends at & dlc.End) => Ends at 10/28/2001 3:00:00 AM Delta returns a TimeSpan object. Console.WriteLine( Delta is {0} minutes", dlc.Delta.TotalMinutes) => Delta is 60 minutes.
The Guid Type
The System.Guid type exposes several shared and instance methods that can help you work with GUIDs, that is, those 128-bit numbers that serve to uniquely identify ele ments and that are ubiquitous in Windows programming. The NewGuid shared method is useful for generating a new unique identifier:
Create a new GUID.
Dim guid1 As Guid = Guid.NewGuid
By definition, you ll surely get a different output here.
Console.WriteLine(guid1.ToString)
=> 3f5f1d42-2d92-474d-a2a4-1e707c7e2a37
If you already have a GUID for example, a GUID you have read from a database field you can initialize a Guid variable by passing the GUID representation as a string or as an array of bytes to the type s constructor:
Initialize from a string.
Dim guid2 As New Guid( 45FA3B49-3D66-AB33-BB21-1E3B447A6621 )
There are only two more things you can do with a Guid object: you can convert it to a Byte array with the ToByteArray method, and you can compare two Guid values for equality using the Equals method (inherited from System.Object):
Convert to an array of bytes. Dim bytes() As Byte = guid1.ToByteArray For Each b As Byte In bytes Console.Write(b.ToString & ) => 239 1 161 57 143 200 172 70 185 64 222 29 59 15 190 205 Next Compare two GUIDs. If Not guid1.Equals(guid2) Then Console.WriteLine( GUIDs are different. ) End If
Enums
I briefly covered enumerated values in 2. Now I complete the description of Enum blocks by mentioning all the methods you can apply to them.
7:
.NET Framework Basic Types
Any Enum you define in your application derives from System.Enum, which in turn inherits from System.ValueType. Ultimately, therefore, user-defined Enums are value types, but they are special in that you can t define additional properties, methods, or events. All the methods they expose are inherited from System.Enum. (Notice that it s illegal to explicitly inherit a class from System.Enum in Visual Basic.) All the examples in this section refer to the following Enum block:
This Enum defines the data type accepted for a
value entered by the end user.
Enum DataEntry As Integer As Integer is optional.
IntegerNumber FloatingNumber CharString DateTime End Enum
By default, the first enumerated type is assigned the value 0. You can change this initial value if you want, but you aren t encouraged to do so. In fact, it is advisable that 0 be a valid value for any Enum blocks you define; otherwise, a noninitialized Enum vari able will contain an invalid value. The .NET documentation defines a few guidelines for Enum values:
Use names without the Enum suffix; use singular names for regular Enum types and plural for bit-coded Enum types. Use Pascal case for the name of both the Enum and its members. (An exception is constants from the Windows API, which are usually all uppercase.) Use Integer unless you need a larger range, which normally happens only if you have a bit-coded Enum with more than 32 possible values. Don t use Enums for open sets, that is, sets that you might need to expand in the future (for example, operating system versions).
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