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If the client application has a user interface, you might catch this exception, display a dia log box, and ask the user to enter her name and password to submit in a second attempt.
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29:
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Everything I said in 27 about the various Windows authentication methods holds true for Web services. For example, when Basic authentication is used, the username and password are sent in clear text (in Base64-encoded format), and you should use Integrated Windows security if possible.
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As happens with regular ASP.NET applications, Windows authentication has a major drawback: often you don t want to create one Windows account for each user of your Web service. In this section, I show how you can leverage SOAP headers to implement a custom authentication mechanism. The idea is simple: each call from the client application must include a SOAP header that contains username and password. All the Web service methods that require authentication for example, methods that require some form of subscription invoke a central function, named ValidateUser, which checks the credentials in the header and throws an exception if the credentials aren t valid or the subscription has expired. Here s the source code for a Web service class that contains such a method:
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Public Class SampleService Inherits System.Web.Services.WebService Public accountInfo As AccountInfoHeader <WebMethod(), SoapHeader( accountInfo )> _ Function ProtectedMethod() As Boolean Check that credentials are OK; throw exception if not. ValidateAccount() Return a value (always True in this demo). Return True End Function Validate username and password (private function). Private Sub ValidateAccount() Throw exception if missing header. If accountInfo Is Nothing Then Throw New SoapException( Missing user info header", _ SoapException.ClientFaultCode) End If Throw exception if header members aren t set. If accountInfo.UserName = Or accountInfo.Password = Then Throw New SoapException( Missing user info", _ SoapException.ClientFaultCode) End If Throw exception if invalid user. If Not CheckUser(accountInfo.UserName, accountInfo.Password) Then Throw New SoapException( Insufficient subscription level", _ SoapException.ClientFaultCode) End If
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Part VI:
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Exit regularly if everything is OK. End Sub Check that user credentials are valid. Function CheckUser(ByVal username As String, ByVal password As String) _ As Boolean (A real-world application would use a database.) If username = JoeDoe And password = jdpwd Then Return True ElseIf username = AnnSmith And password = aspwd Then Return True Else Unknown user or invalid credentials Return False End If End Function End Class This is the SOAP Header class. Public Class AccountInfoHeader Inherits SoapHeader Public UserName As String Public Password As String End Class
The client-side code is similar to the code you saw in the section SOAP Headers, ear lier in this chapter:
Prepare the SOAP header with account information. Dim accountInfo As New localhost.AccountInfoHeader() accountInfo.UserName = JoeDoe" accountInfo.Password = jdpwd" Pass account information to the proxy class. Dim service As New localhost.SampleService() service.AccountInfoHeaderValue = accountInfo Call the protected Web service method. Dim res As Boolean = service.ProtectedMethod()
The beauty of this approach is that you can easily expand the ValidateUser procedure in the Web service class to implement sophisticated authorization policies. For exam ple, the procedure can use reflection techniques to retrieve the name of the method that called it that is, the Web service method invoked by the client and ensure that users have a subscription level that allows them to make the call. Here s an implemen tation of this concept:
Validate username and password. (Private procedure) Private Sub ValidateAccount() Throw exception if missing header. If accountInfo Is Nothing Then Throw New SoapException( Missing user info header", _ SoapException.ClientFaultCode) End If
29:
Web Services
Throw exception if header members aren t set. If accountInfo.UserName = Or accountInfo.Password = Then Throw New SoapException( Missing user info", _ SoapException.ClientFaultCode) End If Retrieve the subscription level of this user. Dim thisUserSubscriptionLevel As Integer = GetUserSubscriptionLevel _ (accountInfo.UserName, accountInfo.Password) Exit if credentials are invalid. If thisUserSubscriptionLevel < 0 Then Throw New SoapException( Unknown user", _ SoapException.ClientFaultCode) End If Retrieve the name of the method that called this procedure.
Dim st As New System.Diagnostics.StackTrace(False)
GetFrame(0) describes the running procedure,
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