generate qr code using asp.net c# The BankAccount Class Revisited in Visual C#.NET

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The BankAccount Class Revisited
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In 5, the BankAccount class was fully functional, which could lead to errors in the program if you ever instantiated the class because its behavior would be neither that of a SavingsAccount class nor a CheckingAccount class. In this chapter, you ll create the BankAccount class as an abstract class. You might recall that the BankAccount classes had an ID property whose format depended on the account type. Because the ID property depends on the type of account, there s no reason to implement this method in the base class, and furthermore, you don t want to implement it in the base class. If you did, the implementation wouldn t be correct for either type of account. Using an abstract property forces you to implement this method. In this chapter, you ll also add the abstract PrintStatement method to the base class. The SavingsAccount statement will include the deposits, withdrawals, and interest paid. The CheckingAccount statement will include deposits, withdrawals, and the number of checks written. If this method were implemented in the base class, it would be valid for neither of the derived classes. You might be thinking at this point, I can implement the PrintStatement method in the base class. I ll just check the type of the instance and then print the correct statement.
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This solution would work as long as you know all the derived classes of the base class, but doing this would limit the reusability of the base class. In general, base classes shouldn t contain code that depends on the derived classes. Describing the Design Using the Unified Modeling Language The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical tool for describing object-oriented designs. Development tools such as UML allow developers to discuss designs using a common vocabulary. Such tools also decrease ambiguity in a specification. In previous chapters, the class designs have been specified by tables listing the properties and methods. In this and subsequent chapters, I ll use a UML class diagram to specify designs. The basic unit of the class diagram is the box, which represents the class:
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The class element has two sections below the name, one to specify the properties and one to specify the methods:
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The preceding diagram describes the abstract base class you ll implement, BankAccount. The italic title shows that BankAccount is an abstract class. The UML lists the properties and their default values, and it specifies public properties by preceding them with a plus sign. The lower section of the class element lists the public methods defined in the class. The UML also indicates the parameters for the methods and their return values. In UML, the in word indicates that the parameter is passed by value in Visual Basic. The UML also shows the derived classes with the inheritance relationship denoted by an arrow pointing toward the base class, usually placed above the derived class. The derived classes are assumed to inherit everything from the base class, so only the additions are shown in the derived class. Here s the complet e UML class diagram for this chapter:
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Note that the UML class diagram doesn t specify any of the behavior of the interface. For example, the class diagram doesn t explain the interaction of the Deposit method and the Balance property. It doesn t explain how the ID property should be implemented in the SavingsAccount and CheckingAccount classes. You can create UML diagrams yourself using anything from drawing tools to high-end professional development tools. Some tools can generate code from your diagrams or generate diagrams from your code. Even a simple, quickly drawn diagram can convey the basic structure of your object-oriented program. Creating the Abstract Class The first class you ll create is the BankAccount class. This class implements some methods and leaves others as abstract. Declaring just one member as abstract makes your entire class abstract. Create the class 1. Create a new project and name it ABetterBank. 2. On the Project menu, click Add Class. The Add New Item dialog box appears. 3. Name the file BankAccount.vb or BankAccount.cs, depending on the language you re using. 4. Add the MustInherit or abstract keyword to the class declaration, as you see here: 5. 6. 7. 8. // Visual C# public abstract class BankAccount Add the nonabstract members 1. Add the following code for the Balance property: 2. Visual Basic 3. Private m_balance As Decimal = 0D 4. Public ReadOnly Property Balance() As Decimal 5. Get 6. Return m_balance 7. End Get Visual Basic Public MustInherit Class BankAccount
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8. End Property 9. 10. // Visual C# 11. private decimal m_balance; 12. public decimal Balance { 13. get { return m_balance; } 14. } 15. Add the following code for the TotalDeposits property. The TotalDeposits property is the total of all the deposits for the lifetime of the instance. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. // Visual C# private decimal m_totalDeposits; public decimal TotalDeposits { get { return m_totalDeposits; } Visual Basic Private m_totalDeposits As Decimal = 0D Public ReadOnly Property TotalDeposits() As Decimal Get Return m_totalDeposits End Get End Property
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} 28. Add the following code for the TotalWithdrawals property. The TotalWithdrawals property is the total of all the withdrawals for the lifetime of the instance. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. // Visual C# private decimal m_totalWithdrawals; public decimal TotalWithdrawals { get { return m_totalWithdrawals; } Visual Basic Private m_totalWithdrawals As Decimal = 0D Public ReadOnly Property TotalWithdrawals() As Decimal Get Return m_totalWithdrawals End Get End Property
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} 41. Add the following code for the Withdraw and Deposit methods: 42. Visual Basic 43. Public Function Deposit(ByVal amount As Decimal) As Decimal 44. 45. 46. m_balance += amount m_totalDeposits += amount Return (m_balance)
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