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50. Drag a card onto the form. Experiment with changing the suit and value of the card. Here s the Jack of Diamonds:
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51. The Properties window follows. Note that property descriptions are displayed at the bottom of the Properties window, and that the Card properties are shown together in the Game category of the Properties window. Also note that the Text property isn t in the Properties window.
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Creating the Deck Component You ll implement the Deck as a component, which means that you ll be able to add a Deck component icon to the Toolbox. When you drag the Deck component to the form, an instance will be placed in the component tray, similar to the Timer control. By making the Deck a component, you can use the graphical tools of the Visual Studio .NET design environment to set the properties of the component. This implementation of Deck behaves differently than the version you wrote in 4. In that version, the parameterless constructor created a 52-card deck, and a second constructor allowed you to specify the suits and face values that would appear in the deck. In this implementation, the parameterless constructor again creates a 52-card deck, but there is no constructor that takes parameters. Instead, the Deck class will support a Suits property and a FaceValues property. The user can therefore use a collection editor similar to the collection editor for the ListBox control to choose the values at design time. When the user changes either the Suit value or the FaceValue property, the Card instances are created to match the new values. Add the Deck component to the project 1. Right -click the GamesLibrary project in the Solution Explorer, point to Add, and then click Add Component on the shortcut menu. The Add New Item dialog box appears. 2. Name the new component Deck.vb or Deck.cs, depending on the language you re using. 3. Right -click in the designer and click View Code on the shortcut menu. Examine the code for the Deck. You ll see the important elements of a component: The key feature of a component is that it can be hosted (or sited) in a container for design-time support. Thus, you ll find this constructor: Visual Basic Public Sub New(Container As System.Component Model.IContainer) MyClass.New()
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Required for Windows.Forms Class Compositio n Designer support Container.Add(me) End Sub // Visual C# public Deck(System.ComponentModel.IContainer container) { /// <summary> /// Required for Windows.Forms Class Composi tion Designer support /// </summary> container.Add(this); InitializeComponent(); // // TODO: Add any constructor code after Initializ eComponent call //
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The second feature, also seen in the UserControl, is that the component contains a component field, so that the component can host other components: // Visual C# Visual Basic Private components As System.ComponentModel. Container
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private System.ComponentModel.Container components = nul l; Define the Toolbox icon for the Deck component To define the icon for the Deck component, add a bitmap named Deck.bmp to the project. 1. Create a 16-by-16-pixel bitmap for your project, name it Deck.bmp, and save it in the project directory. An icon is available on the companion CD in the \08 folder. The file must be named Deck.bmp. 2. In the Solution Explorer, right-click the GamesLibrary project, point to Add, and then click Add Existing Item in the shortcut menu. 3. In the Add Existing Item dialog box, change Files Of Type to Image Files. 4. Select Deck.bmp and click Open. 5. In the Solution Explorer, right-click the Deck.bmp file and click Properties on the shortcut menu. 6. In the Properties window, set the Build Action property of the bitmap file to Embedded Resource. This will cause the bitmap to be added to the assembly file. Add the Suits and FaceValues properties In 4, you passed the suits and face values for the deck as parameters to the constructor. In this case, you want to allow the user to define the suits and face values after dropping the Deck component onto the form, so that the values won t be defined when the control is created.
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Add the following code for the Suits property. The Suits property is an array of Suit enumeration values. At design-time, the development environment will be able to examine the type of the array and provide a collection editor for entering the values. You will define the MakeDeck method in the next section. Whenever the suits in the deck are changed, a new set of cards is created. 2. Visual Basic 3. Dim m_suits() As Suit = {Suit.Clubs, Suit.Diamonds, Suit.Hearts, _ 4. Suit.Spades} 5. <Category("Game"), Description("The suits in the deck.")> _ 6. Public Property Suits() As Suit() 7. Get 8. Return m_suits 9. End Get 10. Set(ByVal Value As Suit()) 11. m_suits = Value 12. Me.MakeDeck() 13. End Set 14. End Property 15. 16. // Visual C# 17. private Suit[] m_suits = {Suit.Clubs, Suit.Diamonds, Suit.Hearts, 18. Suit.Spades}; 19. [Category("Game")] 20. [Description("The suits in the deck.")] 21. public Suit[] Suits { 22. get { return m_suits; } 23. set { 24. m_suits = value; 25. this.MakeDeck(); 26. } 27. } 28. Add the following code for the FaceValues property. Like the code you added for the Suits property, this code is an array of enumeration values. 29. Visual Basic 30. Dim m_faceValues() As FaceValue = {FaceValue.Ace, FaceValu e.Two, _ 31. 32. 33. FaceValue.Three, FaceValue.Four, FaceValue.Five, FaceValu e.Six, _ FaceValue.Seven, FaceValue.Eight, FaceValue.Nine, FaceVal ue.Ten, _ FaceValue.Jack, FaceValue.Queen, FaceValue.King}
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34. <Category("Game"), Description("The face values in the deck.")> _ 35. Public Property FaceValues() As FaceValue() 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. Get Return m_faceValues End Get Set(ByVal Value As FaceValue()) m_faceValues = Value Me.MakeDeck() End Set
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43. End Property 44. 45. // Visual C# 46. private FaceValue[] m_faceValues = {FaceValue.Ace, FaceValue. Two, 47. 48. 49. FaceValue.Three, FaceValue.Four, FaceValue.Five, FaceValu e.Six, FaceValue.Seven, FaceValue.Eight, FaceValue.Nine, FaceVal ue.Ten, FaceValue.Jack, FaceValue.Queen, FaceValue.King};
50. [Category("Game")] 51. [Description("The face values in the deck.")] 52. public FaceValue[] FaceValues { 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. } Add and modify the constructors Add the following call to the two existing constructors. Add this code as the last line of code in each constructor. If you re using Visual Basic, expand the code region labeled Component Designer Generated Code to find the two constructors. Visual Basic MakeDeck() // Visual C# MakeDeck(); Add the MakeDeck and Shuffle methods The MakeDeck private method creates the cards using the Suits and FaceValues properties. It s called whenever either the Suits or FaceValues property is changed. 1. Add the following code for the MakeDeck method. This is the same method you used in the 4 exercise, except that it uses the m_suits and m_faceValues fields instead of taking two parameters. Because the deck might have cards from a previous call to MakeDeck, those cards are removed. 2. Visual Basic 3. Dim m_cards As New System.Collections.ArrayList() 4. Private Sub MakeDeck() 5. Dispose of the existing cards. 6. Dim count As Integer 7. For count = 0 To m_cards.Count - 1 8. CType(m_cards(count), Card).Dispose() 9. Next 10. m_cards.Clear() 11. 12. Add the new cards. 13. Dim asuit, avalue As Integer 14. For asuit = 0 To suits.Length - 1 15. For avalue = 0 To m_faceValues.Length - 1 } get { return m_faceValues; } set { m_faceValues = value; this.MakeDeck();
m_cards.Add(New Card(m_suits(asuit), m_faceValues(av alue))) 17. Next 18. Next 19. End Sub 20. 21. // Visual C# 22. System.Collections.ArrayList m_cards = new System.Collections. ArrayList(); 23. private void MakeDeck() { 24. // Dispose of the existing cards. 25. for (int count = 0; count < m_cards.Count; count++ ) { 26. ((Card)m_cards[count]).Dispose(); 27. } 28. m_cards.Clear(); 29. 30. // Add the new cards. 31. for (int asuit = 0; asuit < m_suits.Length; asuit++) { 32. for (int avalue = 0; avalue < m_faceValues.Length; avalue++ ){ 33. m_cards.Add(new Card(m_suits[asuit], m_faceValues[ava lue])); 34. } 35. } 36. }
The Dispose Method The .NET runtime supports automatic garbage collection. When you create an instance of a class, a certain amount of memory is reserved for and used by the instance. At some later time in the program, you might not need that instance anymore, and you ll want to release the memory for use by other instances in your program or other programs. The .NET runtime tracks the use of objects in your program. When the runtime determines that you have no reference variables that point to a class instance, that memory is released. One of the limitations of this garbage collection is that you can t force memory to be released. You might want to release class instances, though, if they re using resources that are limited, such as the number of open files. You ll find that some objects in the .NET Framework provide a Dispose method that releases any of these resources. When you use a class that supports the Dispose method, you should call that method on any reference that you know you re going to release. Be aware that once you call Dispose on an instance, that instance becomes invalid.
64. Add the following code for the Shuffle method. This code is unchanged from the code in 4. 65. Visual Basic 66. Public Sub Shuffle() 67. Dim rgen As New System.Random() 68. Dim newdeck As New System.Collections.ArrayList() 69. While (m_cards.Count > 0) 70. Choose one card at random. 71. Dim removeindex As Integer = rgen.Next(0, m_cards.Count - 1) 72. Dim removeobject As Object = m_cards(removeindex) 73. m_cards.RemoveAt(removeindex) 74. Add the removed card to the new collection. 75. newdeck.Add(removeobject)
76. End While 77. 78. Replace the old deck with the new deck. 79. m_cards = newdeck 80. End Sub 81. 82. // Visual C# 83. public void Shuffle() { 84. System.Random rgen = new System.Random(); 85. System.Collections.ArrayList newdeck = 86. new System.Collections.ArrayList(); 87. while (m_cards.Count > 0) { 88. // Remove one from m_cards. 89. int toremove = rgen.Next(0, m_cards.Count - 1); 90. Card remove = (Card)m_cards[toremove]; 91. m_cards.Remove(remove); 92. // Add it to the new deck. 93. newdeck.Add(remove); 94. } 95. 96. // Replace old deck with new deck. 97. m_cards = newdeck; } Add the Count and indexer properties You can now implement the Count and indexer properties, which use the ArrayList field. Again, this code is unchanged from 4, except for additions to support the Properties window. 1. Add the following code for the Count property: 2. Visual Basic 3. <Category("Game"), Description(" Number of cards in the deck.")> _ 4. Public ReadOnly Property Count() As Integer 5. Get 6. Return m_cards.Count 7. End Get 8. End Property 9. 10. // Visual C# 11. [Category("Game")] 12. [Description("Number of cards in the deck.")] 13. public int Count { 14. get { return m_cards.Count; } } 15. Add the following code for the default property in Visual Basic and the indexer property in Visual C#: 16. Visual Basic 17. Default Public ReadOnly Property Cards(ByVal indexer As Intege r) As Card 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Get If ((indexer >= 0) And (indexer < m_cards.Count)) Then Return CType(m_cards(indexer), Card) Else Throw New ArgumentOutOfRangeException("Index out of range.") End If
24. 26.
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