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Using the Class View
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The IDE provides a Class View that displays a tree view of the class structure of the project, namespaces, and classes. The Class View can share the same window as the Solution Explorer. On the View menu, click Class View to open the Class View. The expanded Class View is shown below for Visual Basic and Visual C#, respectively.
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The highest-level node represents the project, ReadBooks. The next level of nodes represents the namespaces in the project. A project can contain several namespaces; in this case, there s only one. The project namespace contains two classes: the class that we created, Book, and the class for the Windows form, Form1. The Book class contains two public fields, PageLength and Text, represented by blue blocks, and one private field, m_title, represented by a blue block with a lock. The class contains one property, Title, represented by a graphical hand holding a letter. The class contains a method, GetPage, with one integer parameter that returns a string. The method is represented by a purple block. In the case of Visual C#, the tree indicates the base classes and interfaces (which I ll cover in s 5 and 9). If we were to expand the Bases And Interfaces node, we d find that Book has Object as its base class. All classes in Visual Basic and Visual C# implicitly have Object as a base class. Base classes are covered in 5, Using Inheritance to Create Specialized Classes. Creating the Library Class By means of the Class View, C# provides additional tools for creating class definitions. We ll use these tools to create the Library class. This class will have two methods: CheckIn, which adds an instance of Book to the Library class, and CheckOut, which removes a particular book from the Library class and returns a reference to that book. The following wizards are available only in Visual C#. The code for Visual Basic is shown at the end of the section so that it can be added to the Visual Basic project.
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Create the Library class 1. In the Class View, right-click the Visual C# project ReadBooks, point to Add, and then click Add Class on the shortcut menu. 2. The C# Class Wizard appears as shown here:
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4. Field or tab Class Name
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Enter Library in the Class Name box, select ReadBooks in the Namespace list and public in the Access list, click the None Class Modifiers option, and then click Finish. The fields and tabs of the wizard are described in the following table. Description The name of the new class. In this case, Library. The namespace controls the packaging of the types in the assembly and the qualified names used to refer to the class. By default, this is the name of the class. This controls the ability to create references in other parts of the application and in other applications. The abstract and sealed classes
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Class Modifiers
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Field or tab
Description control use of the class in inheritance relationships . These will be discussed in 6, Designing Base Classes and Abstract Classes.
Comment
Use this field to add a comment to the class. Allows you to choose a base class for your class. Classes from your project, from the .NET Framework, and other assemblies are available in drop-down lists. Allows you to pick the interfaces you want to implement in your class.
Base Class tab
Inheritance tab
Add a field to the Library class To store the collection of books, you ll add an instance of the SortedList class to your project. The SortedList class is a data structure class provided by the .NET Framework. It can store data in the same way that you might use an array. The SortedList class has two additional features: you can look up a particular piece of data based on a string key, and you can add or remove data as you like. 1. Add the following statement to the top of the Library.cs file. using System.Collections; Adding this statement allows you to use the SortedCollection class without having to use the fully qualified name, System.Collections.SortedList. 2. In the Class View, right-click the Library class and point to Add.
The IDE provides wizards for adding fields, properties, methods, and indexers, as shown here:
7. 8.
Click Add Field. The C# Add Field Wizard appears, as you see here:
Click private in the Field Access list, enter SortedList in the Field Type box, and enter m_shelf in the Field Name box. Leave None for the Field Modifiers option. I ll talk about the Static modifier in 11, Creating Static Members, and I ll cover the Const modifier in 7, Responding to Changes with Events and Exceptions. 10. Click Finish. 11. Modify the declaration of m_shelf in the Library class to instantiate it. SortedList is a class, so it must be instantiated just as you instantiated the Book class. private SortedList m_shelf = new SortedList(); Add the methods to the Library class At the beginning of this chapter, you designed the Library class with a CheckIn method. In the last section, Add a field to the Library class, you created a SortedList class for the instances of Book. The Library s CheckIn method calls the SortedList s Add method to store the instances of Book. Add the CheckIn method to the Library class 1. In the Class View, right-click the Library class, point to Add, and click Add Method. The C# Add Method Wizard appears as shown here:
13. Enter CheckIn in the Method Name box. You want the method to be public, and you don t want to return any value from the method. The method will have one parameter, newBook . 14. Enter Book in the Parameter Type box, enter newBook in the Parameter Name box, and click Add to add newBook to the Parameter List. You can see the Method signature being created as you specify the information in the wizard s fields. 15. Click Finish to add the method to the Library class. 16. Modify the resulting method block to add the book to m_shelf, using the book s title as the key value. We ll use the same value to retrieve the book from the shelf in the CheckOut method. 17. 18. } Add the CheckOut method to the Library class 1. Run the Add Method Wizard by right-clicking Library in the Class View, pointing to Add, and clicking Add Method. 2. Enter Book in the Return Type box; enter CheckOut in the Method Name box, create one string type parameter named title, and click Finish. 3. Modify the code as shown in the following snippet so that the book is removed from SortedList and returned from the method. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. public Book CheckOut(string title) { Book theBook; theBook = (Book)m_shelf[title]; m_shelf.Remove(title); return theBook; public void CheckIn(Book newBook) { m_shelf.Add(newBook.Title, newBook);
} The (Book) notation in the second statement of the CheckOut method is known as a cast. The .NET Framework collection classes are extremely powerful because they ll hold any instance of any class that has the Object class as its base class. Because all classes you ll use in Visual Basic or Visual C# have Object as a base class, you can add an instance of any class you create to SortedList. The flipside of this is that anything you take out of SortedList is considered to be an Object. The cast (Book) lets the compiler know that you re taking out a Book instance so that you can use the Book properties and methods.
9. // Visual C#
You ve completed the code for the Library class. The complete listing for the class, in both Visual Basic and Visual C#, is shown here:
using System; using System.Collections; namespace ReadBooks { /// <summary> /// /// </summary> public class Library { private SortedList m_shelf = new SortedList(); public Library() { } public void CheckIn(Book newBook) { m_shelf.Add(newBook.Title, newBook); } public Book CheckOut(string title) { Book theBook; theBook = (Book)m_shelf[title]; m_shelf.Remove(title); return theBook; } } } Visual Basic Imports System.Collections Public Class Library Private m_shelf as New SortedList() Public Sub CheckIn(ByVal newBook As Book) m_shelf.Add(newBook.Title, newBook) End Sub Public Function CheckOut(ByVal title As String) As Book Dim theBook as Book theBook = CType(m_shelf(title), Book) m_shelf.Remove(title) Return theBook End Function End Class
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