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19 ASP.NET Security
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actions from within the worker thread. In other words, a publicly exposed, fully trusted application is a potential platform for hackers to launch attacks. The less an application is trusted, the more secure that application happens to be.
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The <trust> Section
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By default, ASP.NET applications run unrestricted and are allowed to do whatever their account is allowed to do. The actual security restrictions that sometimes apply to ASP.NET applications (for example, the inability to write files) are not a sign of partial trust, but more simply the effect of the underprivileged account under which ASP.NET applications normally run. By tweaking the <trust> section in the root web.config file, you can configure code access security permissions for a Web application and decide whether it has to run fully or partially trusted:
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<trust level="Medium" originUrl="" />
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Table 19-2 describes the levels of trust available.
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TABLE 19-2
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Levels Permitted in the <trust> Section
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Description
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Applications run fully trusted and can execute arbitrary native code in the process context in which they run. This is the default setting. Code can use most permissions that support partial trust. This level is appropriate for applications you want to run with least privilege to mitigate risks. Code can read and write its own application directories and can interact with databases. Code can read its own application resources but can t interact with resources located outside of its application space. Code can t interact with any protected resources. Appropriate for nonprofessional hosting sites that simply intend to support generic HTML code and highly isolated business logic.
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Level
Full High Medium Low Minimal
Admittedly, restricting the set of things an application can do might be painful at first. However, in the long run (read, if you don t just give up and deliver the application), it produces better and safer code. Note The <trust> section supports an attribute named originUrl. The attribute is a sort
of misnomer. If you set it, the specified URL is granted the permission to access an HTTP resource using either a Socket or WebRequest class. The permission class involved with this is WebPermission. Of course, the Web permission is granted only if the specified <trust> level supports that. Medium and higher trust levels do.
Part IV
Infrastructure of the Application
ASP.NET Permissions
Let s review in more detail the permission granted to ASP.NET applications when the various trust levels are applied. Key ASP.NET permissions for each trust level are outlined in Table 19-3.
TABLE 19-3
Main Permissions in ASP.NET Trust Levels
High Medium
Read/Write to application s space ByUser
Read ByUser (maximum of 1 MB)
Minimal
None None
FileIO IsolatedStorage
Unrestricted Unrestricted
Printing Security
DefaultPrinting Assertion, Execution, ControlThread, ControlPrincipal Unrestricted Unrestricted Unrestricted ReflectionEmit Unrestricted Unrestricted
Same as High Same as High
None Execution
None Execution
SqlClient Registry Environment Reflection Socket Web
Unrestricted (no blank password allowed) None None None None Connect to origin host, if configured
None None None None None Same as Medium
None None None None None None
More detailed information about the permissions actually granted to the default trust levels are available in the security configuration files for each level. The name of the file for each level is stored in the <trustLevel> section. In the end, full-trust applications run unrestricted. High-trust applications have read/write permission for all the files in their application space. However, the physical access to files is still ruled by the NTFS access control list on the resource. High-trust applications have unrestricted access to Microsoft SQL Server but not, for example, to OLE DB classes. (The OleDbPermission and other managed provider permissions are denied to all but fully trusted applications.) Reflection calls are denied, with the exception of those directed at classes in the System.Reflection.Emit namespace. Medium applications have unrestricted access to SQL Server, but only as long as they don t use blank passwords for accounts. The WebPermission is granted to both medium-trust and low-trust applications, but it requires that the URL be configured in the <trust> section through the originUrl attribute. Low-trust applications have read-only permission for files in their application directories. Isolated storage is still permitted but limited to a 1-MB quota.
19 ASP.NET Security
A rule of thumb is that Medium trust should be fine for most ASP.NET applications and applying it shouldn t cause significant headaches, provided that you don t need to access legacy Component Object Model (COM) objects or databases exposed via OLE DB providers. However, there are a few common situations in which adapting an application to Medium trust requires some configuration work. A popular example is setting NHibernate to work in a Medium-trust environment. (See http://blog.yeticode.co.uk/2010/03/running-nhibernate-inmedium-trust for details.)
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