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How Windows Firewall Works
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By default, Windows Firewall blocks connections to the local computer originating from an external source. Exceptions (also known as allow rules) are then made to allow any desired incoming connections, such as traffic to local network shares or traffic for approved network applications. After exceptions are defined, Windows Firewall inspects all incoming packets and compares them against this list of allowed traffic. If a packet matches an entry in the exception list, Windows Firewall passes the packet to the TCP/IP protocol for further processing. If the packet does not match an entry in the list, Windows Firewall discards the packet and, if logging is enabled, creates an entry in the Windows Firewall logging file. The function of firewall exceptions is illustrated in Figure 10-20.
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Figure 10-20 Windows Firewall blocks incoming traffic unless exceptions are made
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You can troubleshoot firewall exceptions and other Windows Firewall features through three tools: the Windows Firewall Control Panel, Group Policy, and the WFAS console.
Troubleshooting Windows Firewall through Control Panel
As shown in Figure 10-21, you can perform the most common configuration and troubleshooting functions turning the firewall on or off and configuring firewall exceptions in Control Panel.
Figure 10-21 Basic Windows Firewall configuration in Control Panel
To configure an exception, click Allow A Program Through Windows Firewall. This opens the Windows Firewall Settings dialog box, as shown in Figure 10-22. In the Exceptions tab, simply select the program whose exception you want to configure. If the program is a custom application that is not already listed, you can add that program by clicking Add Program (if you have an instance of the program installed locally) or Add Port (if you know the TCP or UDP port used by the application). To prevent any firewall exceptions from being configured at all, click the General tab, and then select the option to block all incoming connections.
Lesson 2: Troubleshooting Windows Firewall
Figure 10-22 Adding exceptions to Windows Firewall
Exam Tip Many of the questions about troubleshooting Windows Firewall you will see on the 70-622 exam are related to this concept of conf iguring f irewall exceptions: if a network application is not functioning as expected, be sure to conf igure a f irewall exception to allow the application to communicate with the local computer. If the application is listed in the Exceptions tab of the Windows Firewall Settings dialog box, simply select the application. If the application is not listed, either browse to the program locally or add the relevant port. Also remember that in the WFAS console, exceptions are known as allow rules.
Troubleshooting Windows Firewall with Group Policy
When you are troubleshooting Windows Firewall, be sure to review Group Policy and Local Computer Policy settings because these settings affect the Windows Firewall configuration. Group Policy in particular provides a WFAS node beneath Computer ConfigurationWindows SettingsSecurity Settings, as shown in Figure 10-23.
10
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Figure 10-23 The WFAS node in Group Policy
The WFAS node in Group Policy allows you to configure WFAS settings for all computers at the site, domain, or organizational unit level. If you configure WFAS locally but do not observe the resulting behavior you expect, be sure to verify that no Group Policy settings configured in the WFAS node are conflicting with the local configuration. Both Group Policy and Local Computer Policy also allow you to configure many Windows Firewall related settings in Administrative Templates. To locate these settings in a local or Group Policy object, navigate to Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesNetworkNetwork ConnectionsWindows Firewall, as shown in Figure 10-24.
Lesson 2: Troubleshooting Windows Firewall
Figure 10-24 Windows Firewall configuration options in Administrative Templates
Through Administrative Templates you can configure the following Windows Firewall related policy settings:
Windows Firewall: Allow Authenticated IPSec Bypass This policy setting allows the com-
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puters you specify to bypass the local Windows Firewall if they can authenticate by using IPSec. (Note that unlike the other settings mentioned in this list, this policy setting appears at the root of the Windows Firewall folder in Administrative Templates.) Windows Firewall: Allow Local Program Exceptions This policy setting allows administrators to use the Windows Firewall Control Panel to define a local program exceptions list. The setting does not affect the WFAS console. Windows Firewall: Define Inbound Program Exceptions This policy setting allows you to define firewall exceptions for a set list of programs. Windows Firewall: Protect All Network Connections This setting allows you to force Windows Firewall into an on or off state. Windows Firewall: Do Not Allow Exceptions If you enable this policy setting in the Windows Firewall component of Control Panel, the Don t Allow Exceptions check box is selected, and administrators cannot clear it. Windows Firewall: Allow Inbound File And Printer Sharing Exception If you enable this policy setting, Windows Firewall opens these ports so that this computer can receive print jobs and requests for access to shared files. Windows Firewall: Allow ICMP Exceptions This policy setting allows you to define the specific type of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) message types that Windows Firewall allows.
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