Part III in VS .NET

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Part III
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You have seen throughout this book that C# enables you to overload methods when de ning your own types. C# also allows you to overload many of the existing operator symbols for your own types, although the syntax is slightly different. When you do this, the operators you implement automatically fall into a well-de ned framework with the following rules: You cannot change the precedence and associativity of an operator. The precedence and associativity are based on the operator symbol (for example, +) and not on the type (for example, int) on which the operator symbol is being used. Hence, the expression a + b * c is always the same as a + (b * c), regardless of the types of a, b, and c. You cannot change the multiplicity (the number of operands) of an operator. For example, * (the symbol for multiplication), is a binary operator. If you declare a * operator for your own type, it must be a binary operator. You cannot invent new operator symbols. For example, you can t create a new operator symbol, such as ** for raising one number to the power of another number. You d have to create a method for that. You can t change the meaning of operators when applied to built-in types. For example, the expression 1 + 2 has a prede ned meaning, and you re not allowed to override this meaning. If you could do this, things would be too complicated! There are some operator symbols that you can t overload. For example, you can t overload the dot (.) operator, which indicates access to a class member. Again, if you could do this, it would lead to unnecessary complexity. Tip You can use indexers to simulate [ ] as an operator. Similarly, you can use properties to simulate assignment (=) as an operator, and you can use delegates to simulate a function call as an operator.
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To de ne your own operator behavior, you must overload a selected operator. You use methodlike syntax with a return type and parameters, but the name of the method is the keyword operator together with the operator symbol you are declaring. For example, here s a user-de ned structure named Hour that de nes a binary + operator to add together two instances of Hour:
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struct Hour { public Hour(int initialValue) { this.value = initialValue; }
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21
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public static Hour operator+ (Hour lhs, Hour rhs) { return new Hour(lhs.value + rhs.value); } ... private int value; }
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Notice the following: The operator is public. All operators must be public. The operator is static. All operators must be static. Operators are never polymorphic and cannot use the virtual, abstract, override, or sealed modi er. A binary operator (such as the + operator, shown earlier) has two explicit arguments, and a unary operator has one explicit argument. (C++ programmers should note that operators never have a hidden this parameter.) Tip When declaring highly stylized functionality (such as operators), it is useful to adopt a naming convention for the parameters. For example, developers often use lhs and rhs (acronyms for left-hand side and right-hand side, respectively) for binary operators. When you use the + operator on two expressions of type Hour, the C# compiler automatically converts your code to a call to the user-de ned operator. The C# compiler converts this:
Hour Example(Hour a, Hour b) { return a + b; }
to this:
Hour Example(Hour a, Hour b) { return Hour.operator+(a,b); // pseudocode }
Note, however, that this syntax is pseudocode and not valid C#. You can use a binary operator only in its standard in x notation (with the symbol between the operands). There is one nal rule that you must follow when declaring an operator (otherwise, your code will not compile): at least one of the parameters must always be of the containing type. In the preceding operator+ example for the Hour class, one of the parameters, a or b, must be an Hour object. In this example, both parameters are Hour objects. However, there could be times when you want to de ne additional implementations of operator+ that add, for example, an integer (a number of hours) to an Hour object the rst parameter could be Hour,
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