Using Arrays and Collections in .NET framework

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Using Arrays and Collections
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The size of an array instance does not have to be a constant; it can be calculated at run time, as shown in this example:
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int size = int.Parse(Console.ReadLine()); int[] pins = new int[size];
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You re allowed to create an array whose size is 0. This might sound bizarre, but it s useful in situations where the size of the array is determined dynamically and could be 0. An array of size 0 is not a null array. It s also possible to create multidimensional arrays. For example, to create a two-dimensional array, you create an array that requires two integer indexes. Detailed discussion of multidimensional arrays is beyond the scope of this book, but here s an example:
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int[,] table = new int[4,6];
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Initializing Array Variables
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When you create an array instance, all the elements of the array instance are initialized to a default value depending on their type. You can modify this behavior and initialize the elements of an array to speci c values if you prefer. You achieve this by providing a commaseparated list of values between a pair of braces. For example, to initialize pins to an array of four int variables whose values are 9, 3, 7, and 2, you would write this:
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int[] pins = new int[4]{ 9, 3, 7, 2 };
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The values between the braces do not have to be constants. They can be values calculated at run time, as shown in this example:
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Random r = new Random(); int[] pins = new int[4]{ r.Next() % 10, r.Next() % 10, r.Next() % 10, r.Next() % 10 };
Note The System.Random class is a pseudorandom number generator. The Next method returns
a nonnegative random integer in the range 0 to Int32.MaxValue by default. The Next method is overloaded, and other versions enable you to specify the minimum value and maximum value of the range. The default constructor for the Random class seeds the random number generator with a time-dependent seed value, which reduces the possibility of the class duplicating a sequence of random numbers. An overloaded version of the constructor enables you to provide your own seed value. That way you can generate a repeatable sequence of random numbers for testing purposes.
Part II
Understanding the C# Language
The number of values between the braces must exactly match the size of the array instance being created:
int[] pins = new int[3]{ 9, 3, 7, 2 }; // compile-time error int[] pins = new int[4]{ 9, 3, 7 }; // compile-time error int[] pins = new int[4]{ 9, 3, 7, 2 }; // okay
When you re initializing an array variable, you can actually omit the new expression and the size of the array. The compiler calculates the size from the number of initializers and generates code to create the array. For example:
int[] pins = { 9, 3, 7, 2 };
If you create an array of structures, you can initialize each structure in the array by calling the structure constructor, as shown in this example:
Time[] schedule = { new Time(12,30), new Time(5,30) };
Creating an Implicitly Typed Array
The element type when you declare an array must match the type of elements that you attempt to store in the array. For example, if you declare pins to be an array of int, as shown in the preceding examples, you cannot store a double, string, struct, or anything that is not an int in this array. If you specify a list of initializers when declaring an array, you can let the C# compiler infer the actual type of the elements in the array for you, like this:
var names = new[]{ John , Diana , James , Francesca };
In this example, the C# compiler determines that the names variable is an array of strings. It is worth pointing out a couple of syntactic quirks in this declaration. First, you omit the square brackets from the type; the names variable in this example is declared simply as var, and not var[]. Second, you must specify the new operator and square brackets before the initializer list. If you use this syntax, you must ensure that all the initializers have the same type. This next example will cause the compile-time error No best type found for implicitly typed array :
var bad = new[]{ John , Diana , 99, 100};
However, in some cases, the compiler will convert elements to a different type if doing so makes sense. In the following code, the numbers array is an array of double because the constants 3.5 and 99.999 are both double, and the C# compiler can convert the integer values 1 and 2 to double values:
var numbers = new[]{1, 2, 3.5, 99.999};
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