Part 6: Managing Windows Server 2003 Networking and Print Services in C#

Encode QR in C# Part 6: Managing Windows Server 2003 Networking and Print Services

Part 6: Managing Windows Server 2003 Networking and Print Services
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Managing TCP/IP Networking
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Network ID Host ID
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Figure 24-1.
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IP addressing on Class A networks.
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Class B Networks
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Class B networks are designed for when you need a moderate number of networks and hosts and have addresses that begin with a number between 128 and 191 for the first octet. As shown in Figure 24-2, the first two octets (the first 16 bits of the address) define the network ID, and the last two octets (the last 16 bits of the address) define the host ID. This means that there are 16,384 Class B networks and each network can have 65,534 nodes.
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Figure 24-2.
IP addressing on Class B networks.
Class C Networks
Class C networks are designed for when you need a large number of networks and relatively few hosts and have addresses that begin with a number between 192 and 223 for the first octet. As shown in Figure 24-3, the first three octets (the first 24 bits of the address) define the network ID, and the last octet (the last 8 bits of the address) defines the host ID. This means that there are 2,097,152 Class C networks and each network can have 254 nodes.
Network ID Host ID
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Figure 24-3.
IP addressing on Class C networks.
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Loopback, Public, and Private Addresses
When using any of the IP address classifications, there are certain rules that must be followed. The network ID cannot begin with 127 as the first octet. All IP addresses that begin with 127 are reserved as loopback addresses. Any packets sent to an IP address beginning with 127 are 775
Part 6: Managing Windows Server 2003 Networking and Print Services
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Inside Out handled as if they ve already been routed and reached their destination, which is the local network interface. This means any packets addressed to an IP address of 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 are addressed to and received by the local network interface. In addition, some addresses in the ranges are defined as public and others as private. Public IP addresses are assigned by Internet service providers (ISPs). ISPs obtain allocations of IP addresses from a local Internet registry (LIR) or national Internet registry (NIR) or from their appropriate regional Internet registry (RIR). Private addresses are addresses reserved for organizations to use on internal networks. Because they are nonroutable, meaning they are not reachable on the Internet, they do not affect the public Internet and do not have to be assigned by an addressing authority. The private IP addresses defined are as follows:
Class A private IP addresses Class B private IP addresses Class C private IP addresses
10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255
Because hosts on an organization s private network shouldn t be directly connected to the Internet, they should be indirectly connected using Network Address Translation (NAT) or a gateway program such as a proxy. When NAT is configured on the organization s network, a device, such as a router, is responsible for translating private addresses to public addresses, allowing nodes on the internal network to communicate with the nodes on the public Internet. When proxies are configured on the organization s network, the proxy acts as the go-between. It receives requests from nodes on the internal network and sends the requests to the public Internet. When the response is returned, the proxy sends the response to the node that made the original request. In both cases, the device providing NAT or proxy services has private addresses on its internal network interface and public addresses on its Internet interface.
Multicast IP Addresses
Multicast IP addresses are used only as destination IP addresses and allow multiple nodes to listen for packets sent by a single originating node. In this way, a single packet can be delivered to and received by many hosts. Here s how it works: A sending node addresses a packet using a multicast IP address. If the packet is addressed to the sending node s network, nodes on the network that are listening for multicast traffic receive and process the packet. If the packet is addressed to another network, a router on the sending node s network forwards the packet as it would any other packet. When it is received on the destination network, any nodes on the network that are listening for multicast traffic receive and process the packet. The nodes listening for multicast packets on a particular IP address are referred to as the host group. Members of the host group can be located anywhere as long as the organization s routers know where members of the host group are located so that the routers can forward packets as appropriate.
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