Umbrella Groups in .NET framework

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As an alternative, some organizations establish a root CA hosted by one of the participating organizations. Both companies can then establish subordinate CAs below the common root CA. There still will be management costs for maintaining and operating the common root CA, but they can be shared between the participating organizations. This configuration is often used by large organizations that own several sub-organizations. The holding company can deploy a common root CA for all organizations within the umbrella group and then deploy separate CAs for each participating organization. The holding company maintains control of the root CA in this configuration, but it is able to delegate PKI branch management to each organization within the umbrella group.
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Establishing a PKI
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Note This configuration works well when mergers and acquisitions occur. With the root CA already created, CA hierarchy design can focus on the specific subordinate CA requirements for the merged organization.
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Cross-Certification
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Cross-certification allows you to issue a Cross Certification Authority certificate from a CA in your organization to a CA in another organization. The effect of the Cross Certification Authority certificate is to glue the partner organization s CA structure below the CA that issues the Cross Certification Authority certificate. (See Figure 13-3.)
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Fabrikam Industries A Datum Corporation
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Issuer: FabRoot Subject: FabRoot
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Issuer: ADatumRoot Subject: ADatumRoot
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Issuer: FabRoot Subject: IssuingCA
Issuer: ADatumRoot Subject: UserCA
Issuer: IssuingCA Subject: ADatumRoot
Issuer: ADatumRoot Subject: UserCA
Figure 13-3
The effect of a Cross Certification Authority certificate
In this example, the IssuingCA of Fabrikam Industries issues a Cross Certification Authority certificate to the root CA of the A Datum Corporation CA hierarchy. The effect of this Cross Certification Authority certificate is that the ADatumRoot CA appears as a subordinate CA of the IssuingCA when the certificate
13: Creating Trust Between Organizations
is presented to a computer at Fabrikam Industries. The Cross Certification Authority certificate glues the A Datum Corporation CA hierarchy to the Fabrikam Industries CA hierarchy. The CA that is listed in the subject of the Cross Certification Authority certificate appears to be a subordinate CA of the CA that issued the Cross Certification Authority certificate.
Note If the Cross Certification Authority certificate is issued to the UserCA rather than to the ADatumRoot CA, then the UserCA appears to be directly subordinate to the IssuingCA when presented to a computer belonging to Fabrikam Industries.
The advantage of cross-certification is that you do not have to reissue any certificates to your organization s users. The partner organization simply chooses a CA in your CA hierarchy to receive the Cross Certification Authority certificate. All certificates that exist below that point in the hierarchy are considered trusted by the issuing organization.
Note To define criteria for trusting specific certificates, the issuing organization must define qualified subordination conditions, which are implemented as extensions in the Cross Certification Authority certificate. These extensions filter out nonmatching certificates and only trust certificates that meet the defined conditions.
Important Only Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 support Cross Certification Authority certificates. If you have Windows 2000 or earlier computers on the network, you must also implement CTLs to define the trust of another organization s certificates.
Bridge CAs
An alternative to cross-certification is to implement a bridge CA. (See Figure 13-4.)
Part II:
Establishing a PKI
Issuer: BridgeCA Subject: BridgeCA Issuer: FabRoot Subject: FabRoot
Issuer: NWRoot Subject: NWRoot
Issuer: FabRoot Subject: UserCA Issuer: TreyRoot Subject: TreyRoot
Issuer: NWRoot Subject: AssocCA
Issuer: TreyRoot Subject: EmployeeCA
Figure 13-4
A bridge CA hierarchy
A bridge CA allows multiple organizations to recognize certificates issued by the CA hierarchies of the other organizations. The main component of the bridge CA hierarchy is the bridge CA itself. Every participating organization must issue a certificate to the bridge CA, which in turn issues a certificate to a CA in each CA hierarchy.
Note Organizations typically issue the bridge CA its certificate from an issuing CA rather than an offline CA. This allows faster recognition of a certificate revocation if the organization leaves the bridge CA hierarchy. If the bridge CA certificate is issued from a root or offline policy CA, the certificate revocation list (CRL) cannot be published for a long period, usually three months to a year, while an issuing CA can publish its CRL on a daily or weekly basis.
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