2: Primer to PKI in VS .NET

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2: Primer to PKI
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A root CA is special in that its certificate is self-issued. This means that the cer tificate s Issuer Name and Subject Name fields contain the same distinguished name. The only way to validate whether a root certificate is valid is to include the root CA certificate in a trusted root store. The trusted root store contains the actual root CA certificate to designate that the certificate is trusted.
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Note If a self-signed certificate is not included in the trusted root store, it is considered a nontrusted root CA. If revocation checking is enabled in an application, a certificate that is chained to a nontrusted root CA is considered nontrusted.
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The root CA can issue certificates to other CAs or to users, computers, network devices, or services on the network. When the root CA issues a certificate to another network entity, the root CA certificate signs the certificate with its private key to prevent content modification and to indicate that the root CA issued the certificate.
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Note Typically, the root CA only issues certificates to other CAs, not to users, computers, network devices, or services on the network.
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Intermediate CA
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An intermediate CA is a CA that is subordinate to another CA and issues certificates to other CAs in the CA hierarchy. The intermediate CA can exist at any level in the CA hierarchy, except at the root CA level.
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Note The CA that issues a certificate to another CA is often referred to as a parent CA. For example, a root CA that issues a certificate to an intermediate CA is referenced as the parent CA to the intermediate CA. The intermediate CA is also referred to as a subordinate CA, as it is directly subordinate to the parent CA in the hierarchy.
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Policy CA
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A special category of intermediate CA is a policy CA. A policy CA describes the pol icies and procedures an organization implements to validate certificate-holder iden tity and secure the CAs in the CA hierarchy. A policy CA only issues certificates to
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Part I:
Foundations of PKI
other CAs in the hierarchy. It is assumed that all CAs that are subordinate to a policy CA whether directly subordinate or two or more levels below the policy CA enforce the policies and procedures defined at the policy CA. If an organization must implement multiple policies and procedures when issu ing certificates, multiple policy CAs must exist in the CA hierarchy. (See Figure 2-5.)
Intermediate CA Intermedia
Issuing CA
Issuing CA
Issuing CA
Issuing CA
Figure 2-5
Policy CA example
In this example, two policy CAs exist in the CA hierarchy. The Internal Policy CA defines the policies and procedures used to validate the identity of certificates issued to employees. The two issuing CAs (Americas CA and Europe CA), which are directly subordinate to the Internal Policy CA, must enforce the policies and proce dures defined by the Internal Policy CA. The External Policy CA defines the policies and procedures used to validate iden tity and secure the process of issuing certificates to nonemployees. The Customers CA, as a subordinate CA to the External Policy CA, must enforce the policies and proce dures defined by the External Policy CA.
Note More than one policy or procedure can be defined at a policy CA, but it is also valid to implement one policy CA for each policy or procedure applied by the organization.
2: Primer to PKI
Issuing CA
An issuing CA issues certificates to users, computers, network devices, or services on the network. An issuing CA is typically located on the third tier of a CA hierarchy, but it can exist on the second level, as shown in Figure 2-4. As mentioned, an issuing CA must enforce any policies and procedures defined by a policy CA that exists between the issuing CA and the root CA in the CA hierarchy.
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