Planning and Implementing Disaster Recovery in Visual Studio .NET

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Planning and Implementing Disaster Recovery
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5. At the command prompt, at the Enter New Password prompt, type a complex password and press ENTER. 6. At the command prompt, at the Confirm New Password prompt, type the same password and press ENTER. 7. When the backup is complete, ensure there are no error messages and close the command prompt.
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Other Backup Methods
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Rather than performing System State or manual backups, some organizations use alternative methods for disaster recovery. These methods binary backups and HSM backups often depend on the role a CA plays in the CA hierarchy and the methods used to protect the CA s key pair.
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For offline CAs, some organizations choose to create binary images of the computers. This is done by using disk-imaging software such as Norton Ghost or Symantec Partition Magic. These software packages make a binary-level backup of the computer s hard disk, allowing for quick CA restoration.
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Note A binary backup can also require a manual or System State backup. The binary image only includes the CA database state at the time of the backup. A System State or manual restoration still might be required to restore the CA to its last working state.
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The advantage of a binary backup is the speed of restoration. Both software packages mentioned earlier allow you to boot from a CD that immediately starts restoration. The disadvantage is the additional security that must be implemented to protect the backup media. If attackers gain access to the backup media, they can create an exact copy of a valid CA to issue invalid certificates.
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One method that protects a CA s private key material from being extracted from the Local Machine store by a member of the local Administrators group is to move the CA s key pair to an HSM. An HSM moves the key pair or a portion of the key material and all cryptographic operations off the CA computer to a secure black box. Because the key material is removed from the CA, proprietary methods must be used to back up and restore the CA key material.
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Part II:
Establishing a PKI
For example, if you implement a Rainbow Chrysalis CA3 or Luna SA HSM, the key material is backed up to Luna tokens. The backup process requires the participation of three key holders, where each key holder holds a separate PKI management role. The backup ensures that, in the event of HSM failure, the key material can be loaded onto a replacement HSM and, in the event of CA hardware failure, the replacement CA can be connected to the existing key material stored on the HSM. Likewise, if you implement an nCipher HSM, the key material is protected by a combination of smart card tokens and encrypted files stored on the CA or a remote file system server. The key pair is re-assembled through the combination of a key pair split between a predefined number of operator cards and the encrypted data stored within the CA s \nfast\kmdata\local folder.
Restoration Procedures
If a CA fails, restore the CA s System State or manual backup. Before you restore the backup, you must reinstall Certificate Services, using the previous CA certificate and key pair to ensure that Certificate Services is using the same key pair for all signing operations. Once you reinstall Certificate Services, the restoration procedure depends on the CA s backup method.
Reinstalling Certificate Services
The first step in restoring the CA computer is to ensure that Certificate Services is installed correctly and can be started and stopped. If you have a good backup of Certificate Services, whether the backup is a System State backup or a manual backup, you must first reinstall Certificate Services using the same certificate and key pair. To reinstall Certificate Services, ensure that the CA certificate and private key are available to the CA.
For a software-based CSP, a local administrator of the computer can import a PKCS #12 into the local machine store. You can verify that the certificate is imported successfully by loading the Certificates MMC console focused on the local computer. For a hardware-based CSP, such as an HSM, you must install the third-party CSP and utilities before you restore connectivity to the hardware device. Once you restore connectivity, the CA computer can communicate with the HSM and access the CA certificate and key pair.
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