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Smart cards can be used to log on only to domain accounts, not local accounts. When you use a password to log on interactively to a domain account, Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, and Windows XP Professional use the Kerberos V5 protocol for authentication. If you use a smart card, the operating system uses Kerberos V5 authentication with X.509 v3 certificates unless the domain controller is not running Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003. To initiate a typical logon session, a user must prove his or her identity to the KDC by providing information known only to the user and the KDC. The secret information is a cryptographic shared key derived from the user s password. A shared secret key is symmetric, which means that the same key is used for both encryption and decryption. To support logging on by using a smart card, Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 implement a public key extension to the Kerberos protocol s initial authentication request. In contrast to shared secret key cryptography, public key cryptography is asymmetric; that is, two different keys are needed one to encrypt, another to decrypt. Together, the keys needed to perform both operations make up a private/public key pair. When a smart card is used in place of a password, a private/public key pair stored on the user s smart card is substituted for the shared secret key derived from the user s password. The private key is stored only on the smart card. The public key can be made available to anyone with whom the owner wants to exchange confidential information.
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In the public key extension to the Kerberos protocol, the client encrypts its part of the initial Authentication Service Exchange (AS Exchange) with the private key and passes the certificate to the KDC. The KDC encrypts the user s logon session key with the public half of the user s key pair. The client then decrypts the logon session key by using the private half of the key pair. Initiating a smart card logon session involves the following process: 1. The user inserts a smart card into a card reader attached to the computer. 2. The insertion of the card signals the SAS just as pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL signals the SAS on computers configured for logging on using a password. 3. In response, Winlogon dispatches to MSGINA, which displays a modified logon dialog box. In this case, however, the user types only the personal identification number (PIN). 4. MSGINA sends the user s logon information to the LSA just as it does with a logon session using a password. 5. The LSA uses the PIN for access to the smart card, which contains the user s private key along with an X509 v3 certificate that contains the public half of the key pair. 6. The Kerberos SSP on the client computer sends the user s public key certificate to the KDC as pre-authentication data in its initial authentication request. 7. The KDC validates the certificate, extracts the public key, and then uses the public key to encrypt a logon session key. It returns the encrypted logon session key and a TGT to the client. 8. If the client owns the private half of the key pair, it can use the private key to decrypt the logon session key. Both the client and the KDC then use this logon session key in all future communications with one another. Warning
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All cryptographic operations that use these keys take place on the smart card.
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The rest of the authentication process is the same as for a standard logon session. For information about the types of smart cards and smart card readers supported by Windows XP Professional, see the Windows Catalog at http://www.microsoft.com/windows /catalog.
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