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The Mechanics of SNMP
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SNMP specifies a structure for formatting messages and for transmitting information between reporting devices and data-collection programs on the network The SNMP-compliant devices on the network are polled for performance-related information, which is passed to a network management console Alarms are also passed to the console, where the gathered information can be viewed to pinpoint problems on the network or be stored for later analysis SNMP runs on top of TCP/IP s datagram protocol specifically, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), a transport protocol that offers a connectionlessmode service This means that a session need not be established before network management information can be passed to the central control point Although SNMP messages can be exchanged across any protocol, UDP is well suited to the brief request/response message exchanges characteristic of network management communications As noted, SNMP is a flexible network management protocol that can be used to manage virtually any object As stated earlier, an object refers to hardware, software, or a logical association, such as a connection or virtual circuit An object s definition is written by the equipment vendor and is held in an MIB The MIB is simply a list of switch settings, hardware counters, in-memory variables, or files used by the network management system to determine the alarm and reporting characteristics of each device on the network, including those connected over LANs Also noted previously is that SNMP is basically a request/response protocol The management system retrieves information from the agents through SNMP s get and get-next commands The get request retrieves the values of specific objects from the MIB, which lists the network objects for which an agent can return values These values may include the number of input packets, the number of input errors, and routing information The getnext request permits navigation of the MIB, enabling the next MIB object to be retrieved, relative to its current position A set request is used to request a logically remote agent to alter the values of variables In addition to these message types, trap messages can occur, which are unsolicited
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messages conveyed from a management agent to management stations Other commands are available that enable the network manager to take specific actions to control the network Although these commands look like SNMP commands, they are really vendor-specific implementations For example, some vendors use a stat command to determine the status of network connections All the major network management platforms support SNMP In addition, many of the third-party systems and network management applications that plug into these platforms also support SNMP The advantage of using such products is that they take advantage of SNMP s capabilities while providing a GUI to make SNMP easier to use Even MIBs can be selected for display and navigation through the GUI Another advantage of commercial products is that they can use SNMP to provide additional functionality For example, Hewlett-Packard s OpenView is used to manage network devices that are IP addressable and run SNMP The automatic discovery capability finds and identifies all IP nodes on the network, including those of other vendors that support SNMP On the basis of discovered information, the management system automatically draws a network topology map Nodes that cannot be discovered automatically can be represented in either of two ways: first, by manually adding custom or standard icons to the appropriate map views, and second, by using SNMPbased APIs for building map applications without having to manually modify the configuration to accommodate non-SNMP devices
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SNMP on Wireless Networks
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Although they share standard elements and mechanisms, wired and wireless networks have significant differences In addition to the conventional wired network, wireless networks have the following unique issues:
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Secondary hierarchy The wireless network environment is hierarchical, with portable devices associated to a given AP Standard network management products designed for wired networks often do not represent this critically important tiered topology network structure and are more likely to represent the wireless network as a flat topology Roaming The wireless network environment supports dynamic cell connection or roaming, which is the process of changing the network connection of a portable device from one AP to another as the user changes location
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