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As we've seen, you use XPointers to target a specific part of the containing resource As you might
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expect, targeting a specific location in a general document can be an elaborate business, and the XPointer syntax is designed to match Let's see how to create XPointers, how they work and what they do, and then we'll work through a few examples using them
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All About XPointers
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To reference documents, you use URLs; to reference specific parts of the document, you use XPointers, which you usually add to the end of an URL to make an XML locator An XPointer is made up of a series of location terms, each of which indicates a location; these locations can be absolute, relative to the last location, or a string-match location These location terms can include a keyword such as +, CHILD, ANCESTOR, and so on, and can be include parameters such as an instance number, element type, or attribute We'll see how to create location terms in a moment, but as a quick example, the relative locator string + refers to the sixth child of the fourth <PART> element within the second <CHAPTER> element in the referenced document XPointers usually start with an absolute location term If the absolute term is followed by relative or string-match terms, the location that it points to is called the location source; this source serves as a starting point for the location terms that follow An XML locator may also contain two XPointers separated by the string + These XPointers define the beginning and end of a span, and it is this span which makes up the target resource: XPointer::= First ('' Second)
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As mentioned, each location term can be either an absolute term (AbsTerm below), a relative term (RelTerm below), or a string-match term (StringTerm below): First::= AbsTerm RelTerm* StringTerm
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Second::= AbsTermOrDitto RelTerm* StringTerm
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We'll take a look at all three types of location terms now
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Absolute Location Terms
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The first type of XPointer location term we'll take a look at is the absolute location term: XPointer::= First ('' Second)
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First::= AbsTerm RelTerm* StringTerm
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Second::= AbsTermOrDitto RelTerm* StringTerm
AbsTerm::= 'ROOT()' | 'HERE()' | IdLoc | HTMLAddr
AbsTermOrDitto::= 'DITTO()' | AbsTerm
IdLoc::= 'ID(' Name ')'
HTMLAddr::= 'HTML(' SkipLit ')'
Absolute location terms specify locations in the containing resource in an absolute manner; the possible absolute location terms are + location term refers to the containing resource's root
Tip: If an XPointer does not start with an absolute location term, the application assumes it starts with a + location term
The + location term refers to the location of the linking element containing the locator If the second XPointer (+ in the XPointer specification above) is DITTO(), the start location for the second XPOINTER is the location pointed to by the first XPointer
Tip: The + keyword makes specifying a location span easier
If an XPointer is preceded by ID(Name), the start location is the element in the containing resource with an ID attribute that matches Name In fact, using an ID location is a common XPointer technique Let's take a look at an example now
The idlocator Example
In this next example, we'll see how to use an ID location term We start with an XML document, +, with an extended link to another document, idlocator2xml: < XML version="10" >
<!doctype LINK [
<!ELEMENT LINK
(#PCDATA | LOCATOR)*>
<!ELEMENT LOCATOR ANY>
<!ATTLIST LINK
XML-LINK
CDATA
#FIXED "EXTENDED"
ROLE
CDATA
#IMPLIED
TITLE
CDATA
#IMPLIED
INLINE
(TRUE|FALSE)
"TRUE"
CONTENT-ROLE
CDATA
#IMPLIED
CONTENT-TITLE CDATA
#IMPLIED
SHOW
(EMBED|REPLACE|NEW) "REPLACE"
ACTUATE
(AUTO|USER)
"USER"
BEHAVIOR
CDATA
#IMPLIED
<!ATTLIST LOCATOR
XML-LINK CDATA
#FIXED "LOCATOR"
ROLE
CDATA
#IMPLIED
HREF
CDATA
#REQUIRED
TITLE
CDATA
#IMPLIED
SHOW
(EMBED|REPLACE|NEW) "REPLACE"
ACTUATE
(AUTO|USER)
"USER"
BEHAVIOR CDATA
#IMPLIED
<LINK XML-LINK = "EXTENDED">
<LOCATOR
XML-LINK="LOCATOR"
HREF="FILE:////C://XML//IDLOCATOR//IDLOCATOR2XML#ROOT()X15">
Here is an extended link
</LOCATOR>
</LINK>
Note the location terms we include here are +: HREF="FILE:////C://XML//IDLOCATOR//IDLOCATOR2XML#ROOT()X15">
ROOT() is the absolute location term that refers to the root of the + document looks (this document is the containing resource)[md]note that we have to add X15 to the <NAME> element's attribute list before using that attribute: < XML version = "10" >
<!DOCTYPE DOCUMENT [
<!ELEMENT DOCUMENT (CUSTOMER|NAME)*>
<!ELEMENT CUSTOMER (NAME,DATE,PRODUCT*)>
<!ELEMENT NAME (LASTNAME ,FIRSTNAME ,#PCDATA )>
<!ELEMENT LASTNAME (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT FIRSTNAME (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT DATE (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT PRODUCT (NAME,NUMBER,PRICE)>
<!ELEMENT NUMBER (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT PRICE (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST NAME
CDATA #IMPLIED>
<DOCUMENT>
<CUSTOMER>
<NAME>
<LASTNAME>Kennilworth</LASTNAME>
<FIRSTNAME>Susanne</FIRSTNAME>
</NAME>
<DATE>March 23, 1998</DATE>
<PRODUCT>
<NAME>Banana</NAME>
<NUMBER>12</NUMBER>
<PRICE>498</PRICE>
</PRODUCT>
<PRODUCT>
<NAME>Peach</NAME>
<NUMBER>3</NUMBER>
<PRICE>69</PRICE>
</PRODUCT>
</CUSTOMER>
<NAME ID = "X15">
Here's the X15 element!
</NAME>
<CUSTOMER>
<NAME>
<LASTNAME>Edwards</LASTNAME>
<FIRSTNAME>Britta</FIRSTNAME>
</NAME>
<DATE>June 17, 1998</DATE>
<PRODUCT>
<NAME>Peach</NAME>
<NUMBER>24</NUMBER>
<PRICE>312</PRICE>
</PRODUCT>
<PRODUCT>
<NAME>Apple</NAME>
<NUMBER>9</NUMBER>
<PRICE>98</PRICE>
</PRODUCT>
</CUSTOMER>
</DOCUMENT>
In this example we present the user with a window and a button labeled Display item with ID = X15: When the user clicks the button, we read in the + document, find the extended link in that document, read in the linked-to idlocator2xml document, and find the X15 element in that second document Finally, we will display the content of the X15 element in the application's window: We start this example, idlocatorjava, by creating a window, an applet, installing the applet in the window, and setting up the controls we'll use: import commsxmlParseException;
import commsxmlDocument;
import commsxmlElement;
import javautilEnumeration;
import javaawt*;
import javanet*;
import javaappletApplet;
public class idlocator extends Applet{
static String filename;
TextField text1;
Button button1;
public static void main(String args[])
idlocatorFrame frame = new idlocatorFrame("The idlocator application");
frameshow();
framehide();
frameresize(320, 320);
idlocator applet = new idlocator();
frameadd("Center", applet);
appletinit();
appletstart();
frameshow();
public void init(){
text1 = new TextField(20);
add(text1);
button1 = new Button("Display item with ID = X15");
add(button1);
When the user clicks the Display button, we read in the + document and search for a child element of the <LOCATOR> type: public boolean action (Event e, Object o)
String locator = "";
URL url = null;
filename = "file:////c://xml//idlocator//idlocatorxml";
try {
url = new URL(filename);
} catch (MalformedURLException e1) {
Systemoutprintln("Cannot create url for: " + filename);
Systemexit(0);
Document d = new Document();
try {
dload(url);
catch (ParseException e2) {
dreportError(e2, Systemout);
if (d != null) {
Element root = dgetRoot();
Enumeration enum = rootgetChildren();
while (enumhasMoreElements()) {
Element elem = (Element)enumnextElement();
if (elemgetTagName()equals("LOCATOR")) {
Next, we get the name of the containing resource from the HREF attribute of the link Note that we search for the connector + method to extract substrings from the locator string: public boolean action (Event e, Object o)
String locator = "";
URL url = null;
filename = "file:////c://xml//idlocator//idlocatorxml";
try {
url = new URL(filename);
} catch (MalformedURLException e1) {
Systemoutprintln("Cannot create url for: " + filename);
Systemexit(0);
Document d = new Document();
try {
dload(url);
catch (ParseException e2) {
dreportError(e2, Systemout);
if (d != null) {
Element root = dgetRoot();
Enumeration enum = rootgetChildren();
while (enumhasMoreElements()) {
Element elem = (Element)enumnextElement();
if (elemgetTagName()equals("LOCATOR")) {
URL url2 = null;
try {
locator = new String(elemgetAttribute ("HREF"));
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