ONE in Visual C#.NET

Scan Code 128 Code Set A in Visual C#.NET ONE

CHAPTER ONE
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Decoding Code 128 Code Set B In Visual C#
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or thermal decomposition The pyrolysis reaction is endothermic in nature, requiring heat, and produces lighter molecules thereby increasing the pressure In addition to the kerogen pyrolysis reaction, carbonate decomposition reactions are also included here as principal chemical reactions, due to their abundant existence and also to their reaction temperature ranges that overlap the kerogen pyrolysis temperature range Other mineral matters of oil shale that are worthy of note are alumina, nahcolite, and dawsonite Some of the processes are designed to recover these mineral matters for economic benefit to the overall process The pyrolysis reaction is quite active at a temperature above 400 C, where most of the commercial retorting processes are operated Most of the ex situ processes utilize the spent (processed) shale as a char source to supply the process heat, thus accomplishing higher energy efficiency for the process The typical temperature required to carry out such pyrolysis reaction is in the range of 450 to 520 C In order to make the efficiency of oil extraction higher, oil shale rocks need to be ground to finer particle sizes, thus alleviating mass transfer resistance and at the same time facilitating smoother flow for cracked hydrocarbons to escape out of the rock matrix Due to the poor porosity or permeability of oil shale rock, the rock matrix often goes through stress fracture during pyrolysis operation, typically noticed as crackling Major drawbacks of this type of process involve (a) mining first operation, which is costly, (b) transportation or conveying the mined shale to retorting facilities, (c) size reduction such as rubblizing, grinding, or milling, and (d) returning the spent shale back to the environment In the current energy market of the globe, any major transportation of unprocessed (raw) shale would be economically unfavorable, unless the raw shale contain very high levels of oil contents or liquid fuel price from conventional petroleum source is substantially higher In ex situ operations, heavy reliance on earth-moving equipment (EME) and rock-handling equipment, such as rock pump and heavy-duty hammer mill, is noticeable Furthermore, it is likely to be constrained by the underlying market principle that the recoverable value including any tax credits or incentives from oil shale has to be favorable after considering all the cost factors including mining, transportation, and processing Often, the mass percentage of oil content of oil shale or the volume of recoverable oil from unit mass of oil shale is used as a measuring parameter The latter is called Fischer assay, which is based on the ASTM standard under a prescribed condition of retorting However, this value should not be considered as the maximum recoverable oil content for the shale or the oil content itself in the shale Several of the ex situ retorting processes have been commercially tested on large scales and also proven effective for designed objectives Some of the successfully demonstrated processes include: (a) Gas Combustion retort process, (b) TOSCO (The Oil Shale Corporation) process, (c) Union Oil retorting process, (d) Lurgi-Ruhrgas (LR) process, (e) Superior Oil s multi-mineral process, and (f) Petr leo Brasileiro (Petrobr s) process Partial combustion of residual char provides the thermal energy for heating the shale via direct contact, thus achieving energy efficiency TOSCO process uses heated ceramic balls to provide the thermal energy for heating the shale by direct contact, and also successfully implements multi-levels of heat recovery and energy integration strategy The Union Oil retorting process is unique and innovative with utilizing well-designed rock pumps and adopting a number of designs for heating shale in the retort The LR process produces hydrocarbons from oil shale by bringing raw shale in contact with hot fine-grained solid heat carrier, which can be just spent shale The Petrobr s process was operated for about 10 years in southern Brazil, treating over 3,500,000 tons of Irati (Permian age) oil shale to produce more than 1,500,000 bbl of shale oil and 20,000 tons of sulfur In situ retorting of oil shale does not involve any mining operation, except starter holes and implementation digging Therefore, in situ retorting does not require any transportation of shale out of the oil shale field In situ retorting is often called subsurface retorting The advantages of in situ retorting processes include: (a) no need for mining, (b) no need for
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Decoding Barcode In C#.NET
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Code128 Decoder In C#
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Decode Code 128 Code Set B In .NET Framework
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Reading Code 128 Code Set C In .NET
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Recognize Code 128B In VB.NET
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Decoding Matrix 2D Barcode In Visual C#
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Recognizing QR Code In C#.NET
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Recognizing Linear 1D Barcode In C#.NET
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Decode USS Code 39 In C#.NET
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2/5 Industrial Recognizer In Visual C#
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Scan Barcode In Java
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Recognize UCC - 12 In Visual Basic .NET
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ANSI/AIM Code 128 Decoder In VS .NET
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GS1 - 12 Scanner In VS .NET
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Data Matrix ECC200 Scanner In Java
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Scan ANSI/AIM Code 39 In Java
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