FUELS FROM OIL SHALE in C#.NET

Recognizing Code 128 Code Set C in C#.NET FUELS FROM OIL SHALE

FUELS FROM OIL SHALE
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hydrogenation or hydrocracking processes may be operated on a strictly thermal basis or in the presence of a catalyst Thermodynamically speaking, larger hydrocarbon molecules are broken into lighter species when subjected to heat The hydrogen/carbon atomic ratio of such molecules is lower than that of saturated hydrocarbons, and abundantly supplied hydrogen improves this ratio by saturating reactions, thus producing liquid species These two steps may occur simultaneously However, the application of hydrocracking process has been hampered by the presence of certain contaminants in such hydrocarbons The presence of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds along with organometallic compounds in crude shale oils and various refined petroleum products has long been considered undesirable Desulfurization and denitrification processes have been developed for this purpose The thermal cracking process is directed toward the recovery of gaseous olefins as the primarily desired cracked product, in preference to gasoline range liquids By this process, it is claimed that at least 15 to 20 percent of the feed shale oil is converted to ethylene, which is the most common gaseous product Most of the feed shale oil is converted to other gaseous and liquid products Other important gaseous products are propylene, l,3-butadiene, ethane, and butanes Hydrogen is also recovered as a valuable non-hydrocarbon gaseous product Liquid products can comprise 40 to 50 weight percent or more of the total product Recovered liquid products include benzene, toluene, xylene, gasoline-boiling-range liquids, and light and heavy oils Coke is a solid product of the process and is produced by polymerization of unsaturated materials Coke is typically formed in an oxygen-deficient environment via dehydrogenation and aromatization Most of the formed coke is removed from the process as a deposit on the entrained inert heat carrier solids The thermal cracking reactor does not require a gaseous hydrogen feed In the reactor, entrained solids flow concurrently through the thermal riser at an average riser temperature of 700 to 1400 C The preferred high length-to-diameter (L-to-D) ratio is in the range of a high 4:1 to 40:1, or 5:1 to 20:1 preferably The moving bed hydroprocessing reactor is used to produce crude oil from oil shale or tar sands containing large amounts of highly abrasive particulate matter, such as rock dust and ash The hydroprocessing takes place in a dual-function moving bed reactor, which simultaneously removes particulate matter by the filter action of the catalyst bed The effluent from the moving bed reactor is then separated and further hydroprocessed in fixed bed reactors with fresh hydrogen added to the heavier hydrocarbon fraction to promote desulfurization A preferred way of treating the shale oil involves using a moving bed reactor followed by a fractionation step to divide the wide-boiling-range crude oil produced from the shale oil into two separate fractions The lighter fraction is hydrotreated for the removal of residual metals, sulfur, and nitrogen, whereas the heavier fraction is cracked in a second fixed bed reactor normally operated under high-severity conditions The fluidized bed hydroretort process eliminates the retorting stage of conventional shale upgrading, by directly subjecting crushed oil shale to a hydroretorting treatment in an upflow, fluidized bed reactor such as that used for the hydrocracking of heavy petroleum residues This process is a single stage retorting and upgrading process Therefore, the process involves: (a) crushing oil shale, (b) mixing the crushed oil shale with a hydrocarbon liquid to provide a pumpable slurry, (c) introducing the slurry along with a hydrogen-containing gas into an upflow, fluidized bed reactor at a superficial fluid velocity sufficient to move the mixture upwardly through the reactor, (d) hydroretorting the oil shale, (e) removing the reaction mixture from the reactor, and (f ) separating the reactor effluent into several components The mineral carbonate decomposition is minimized, as the process operating temperature is lower than that used in retorting Therefore, the gaseous product of this process has a greater heating value than that of other conventional methods In addition, owing to the
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