FUELS FROM BIOMASS in Visual C#.NET

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FUELS FROM BIOMASS
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255 Legend Harvesting
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Gasify
Synthesis
Tertiary processing
Product recovery
Chemicals
Heat
Electricity
Bio-oil
Biosyn fuels
Product decision
FIGURE 810 Thermochemical platform flowchart
products are more likely to be gaseous and consist of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and water as well as volatile tar Slow pyrolysis, like fast pyrolysis, leaves behind a solid residue of char (or charcoal) which comprise approximately 10 to 25 percent by weight of the original feedstock The char can be used as a fuel source to drive the pyrolysis process If the pyrolysis is carried out at a higher temperature range (550 600 C), the gaseous products consist of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, volatile tar, carbon dioxide, and water Any char produced can be used as a fuel source to drive the pyrolysis process or can be gasified to produce
CHAPTER EIGHT
synthesis gas, so-called because of the presence of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the product stream After the production of syngas, a number of pathways may be followed to create biofuels Proven catalytic processes for syngas conversion to fuels and chemicals exist, using syngas produced commercially from natural gas and coal These proven technologies can be applied to biomass-derived syngas Methanol is one potential biofuel that can be generated through catalysis The majority of methanol produced today is being derived from natural gas, however Methanol has a high octane number (129) but relatively low energy (about 146 MJ/L) compared to gasoline (91 98 octane, 35 MJ/L) Because methanol has a favorable hydrogen/carbon ratio (4:1), it is often touted as a potential hydrogen source for future transportation systems Another potential biofuel that can be produced through the thermochemical platform is Fischer-Tropsch diesel (or biodiesel) This fuel was first discovered in 1923 and is commercially based on syngas made from coal, although the process could be applied to biomassderived syngas The process of converting carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) mixtures to liquid hydrocarbons over a transition metal catalyst has become well established although process efficiency leaves much to be desired It is also possible to convert synthesis gas to higher-molecular-weigh products, including ethanol Ethanol and other higher alcohols form as by-products of both Fischer-Tropsch and methanol synthesis, and modified catalysts have been shown to provide better yields The thermal conversion option provides the opportunity for a number of additional coproducts, as well as energy in the form of heat or electricity and biofuels Each component (ie, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrogen) of the gaseous products may be recovered, separated, and utilized Pyrolysis/gasification systems have been reported to be much more efficient for energy recovery, in terms of electricity generation, than traditional combustion It has been estimated that typical biomass steam-generation plants have efficiencies in the low 20 percent range, compared to gasification systems with efficiencies that reach 60 percent (DOE, 2006) High efficiencies have been noted for both co-firing systems (where biomass is gasified together with a fossil fuel such as coal or natural gas) and in dedicated biomass gasification processes (Gielen et al, 2001) Because the potential for energy recovery is so much higher, gasification systems without any downstream catalysis may be able to increase bioenergy production with minimal impact on existing product streams in sawmilling or pulping operations Gasification technologies for the production of fuels from biomass are available but are often bypassed in favor of fossil fuels although this may change with rising fuel costs and uncertainty about the security of fossil reserves (Faaij, 2006) Another issue is the quality of bio-based synthesis gas which are often more heterogeneous than natural gas-based synthesis gas While technical approaches are well documented for the production of hydrogen, methanol, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids from synthesis gas, the input gases must be relatively clean in order for these processes to function in a commercially viable sense Therefore, before catalysis, raw synthesis gas must be cleaned up in order to remove inhibitory substances that would deactivate the catalyst These include sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine compounds, as well as any remaining volatile tar The ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide may need to be adjusted and the carbon dioxide by-product may also need to be removed One major problem with methanol synthesis is that biomass-based syngas tends to be hydrogen-poor compared to natural gas syngas Methanol synthesis requires a ratio of 2:1 hydrogen/carbon monoxide to be cost-effective Common problems associated particularly with Fisher-Tropsch synthesis (Chap 7) are low product selectivity (the unavoidable production of perhaps unwanted coproducts, including olefins, paraffins, and oxygenated products), and the sensitivity of the catalyst to contamination in the syngas that inhibit the catalytic reaction With biomass-based syngas, this problem is amplified due to the heterogeneous nature of the syngas
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