FUELS FROM BIOMASS in C#.NET

Reader Code 128B in C#.NET FUELS FROM BIOMASS

FUELS FROM BIOMASS
Code 128A Reader In C#
Using Barcode recognizer for VS .NET Control to read, scan Code 128A image in VS .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Scan Code128 In C#
Using Barcode scanner for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
A final issue, perhaps of greater concern to policymakers, is that deployment on a large scale is required to gain necessary economies of scale for most of these processes, where the cost of syngas production can easily be more than 50 percent of the total process cost This requirement for large facilities raises the level of capital required for infrastructure development, increasing risk to the investor; it also increases the amount of biomass required for operation, which makes it more difficult to supply the facility over the course of its operational lifetime One of the major implications of the thermal-based process option scenarios is the ability to generate excess heat and power Self-generation of heat and power by the combustion of a portion of biomass feedstock can offset fossil fuel requirements, displacing the load on utilities and improve the environmental performance of the facility Especially, since the cost of buying natural gas to generate heat and power internally has risen dramatically Other options for improved energy production include co-firing or cogeneration (ie, combining biomass with fossil fuels in combustion) It is estimated that gasification technology has the potential to generate twice as much electricity per ton of black liquor as a conventional recovery boiler This additional power can reduce the need to purchase natural gas, coal, oil, and electricity for everyday operations, increasing the economic performance of the facility Excess heat and power can be utilized for additional value-added processing, or can be distributed through a local network to provide district heating of nearby businesses and residences The potential appeal of bioenergy as a product may be limited, however, by the regulatory regime which governs electricity generation, transmission, and sales
Read Barcode In C#.NET
Using Barcode recognizer for VS .NET Control to read, scan bar code image in .NET framework applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Barcode Decoder In C#.NET
Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
863 Greenhouse Gas Production Greenhouse gas production associated with lignocellulosic-based feedstocks is anticipated to be much lower than with conventional fuels The environmental performance depends very much on the specific life cycle of the fuel, including the country in which the life cycle assessment was conducted, the feedstock on which the fuel is based, the vehicle used, the propulsion system, and the overall state of technology (Quirin et al, 2004; VIEWLS, 2005) In general, fuels (and chemicals) made from lignocellulosic materials are characterized by reduced carbon dioxide emissions when compared to similar products derived from petroleum Most biofuels can reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly and substituting emissions by utilizing bio-based energy can create an overall negative emission for the fuel (VIEWLS, 2005) Fischer-Tropsch fuels based on bio-residues are likely to have the lowest possible emissions; this is typical of diesel propulsion systems that have better energy recovery If energy crops are utilized as a feedstock, the overall emissions rise slightly, because the benefit of residue disposal is lost Ethanol from residues or from energy crops also have relatively low emissions, particularly compared to conventional fuels including gasoline and diesel fuel For ethanol from lignocellulose, there is a potential to reduce greenhouse has emissions with improved technology This reflects the close-to-commercial status of the technology today, and the anticipated improvements that will be seen as this technology improves For Fischer-Tropsch fuels, it is anticipated that commercial status will not be achieved until post-2010 (Mabee and Saddler, 2006)
Code 128 Code Set C Decoder In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode recognizer for VS .NET Control to read, scan Code 128B image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Code128 Reader In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode decoder for ASP.NET Control to read, scan ANSI/AIM Code 128 image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
864 Other Aspects For example, a biorefinery using lignin as a feedstock would produce a range of valuable organic chemicals and liquid fuels that, at the present time, could supplement or even
Code 128C Recognizer In VS .NET
Using Barcode decoder for .NET Control to read, scan Code 128B image in .NET framework applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Code 128C Scanner In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode decoder for .NET Control to read, scan Code 128C image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
CHAPTER EIGHT
Matrix 2D Barcode Reader In Visual C#
Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan Matrix 2D Barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
QR Code Reader In C#.NET
Using Barcode scanner for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan QR image in .NET framework applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
replace equivalent or identical products currently obtained from crude oil, coal, or gas Thus, the biorefinery is analogous to an oil refinery in which crude oil is separated into a series of products, such as gasoline, heating oil, jet fuel, and petrochemicals By producing multiple products, a biorefinery can take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates and maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock A biorefinery might, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel, while generating electricity and process heat for its own use and perhaps enough for sale of electricity The high-value products enhance profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet national energy needs, and the power production reduces costs and avoids greenhouse gas emissions As a feedstock, biomass can be converted by thermal or biological routes to a wide range of useful forms of energy including process heat, steam, electricity, as well as liquid fuels, chemicals, and synthesis gas As a raw material, biomass is a nearly universal feedstock due to its versatility, domestic availability, and renewable character At the same time, it also has its limitations For example, the energy density of biomass is low compared to that of coal, liquid petroleum, or petroleum-derived fuels The heat content of biomass, on a dry basis (7000 9000 Btu/lb) is at best comparable with that of a low-rank coal or lignite, and substantially (50 100 percent) lower than that of anthracite, most bituminous coals, and petroleum Most biomass, as received, has a high burden of physically adsorbed moisture, up to 50 percent by weight Thus, without substantial drying, the energy content of a biomass feed per unit mass is even less These inherent characteristics and limitations of biomass feedstocks have focused the development of efficient methods of chemically transforming and upgrading biomass feedstocks in a refinery The refinery would be based on two platforms to promote different product slates The sugar-base involves breakdown of biomass into raw component sugars using chemical and biological means The raw fuels may then be upgraded to produce fuels and chemicals that are interchangeable with existing commodities such as transportation fuels, oils, and hydrogen Although a number of new bioprocesses have been commercialized it is clear that economic and technical barriers still exist before the full potential of this area can be realized One concept gaining considerable momentum is the biorefinery which could significantly reduce production costs of plant-based chemicals and facilitate their substitution into existing markets This concept is analogous to that of a modern oil refinery in that the biorefinery is a highly integrated complex that will efficiently separate biomass raw materials into individual components and convert these into marketable products such as energy, fuels, and chemicals By analogy with crude oil, every element of the plant feedstock will be utilized including the low value lignin components However, the different compositional nature of the biomass feedstock, compared to crude oil, will require the application of a wider variety of processing tools in the biorefinery Processing of the individual components will utilize conventional thermochemical operations and state-of-the-art bioprocessing techniques The production of biofuels in the biorefinery complex will service existing high volume markets, providing economy-of-scale benefits and large volumes of by-product streams at minimal cost for upgrading to valuable chemicals A pertinent example of this is the glycerol by-product produced in biodiesel plants Glycerol has high functionality and is a potential platform chemical for conversion into a range of higher value chemicals The high-volume product streams in a biorefinery need not necessarily be a fuel but could also be a large-volume chemical intermediate such as ethylene or lactic acid A key requirement for delivery of the biorefinery concept is the ability to develop process technology that can economically access and convert the five- and six- membered ring
Scanning UPC Symbol In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode reader for .NET Control to read, scan UCC - 12 image in VS .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
GTIN - 128 Scanner In C#.NET
Using Barcode reader for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan EAN / UCC - 13 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Decoding Uniform Symbology Specification Codabar In Visual C#
Using Barcode scanner for .NET framework Control to read, scan Rationalized Codabar image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
ECC200 Reader In VS .NET
Using Barcode decoder for ASP.NET Control to read, scan DataMatrix image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Decoding UCC - 12 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode decoder for Reporting Service Control to read, scan EAN128 image in Reporting Service applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Recognizing PDF417 In Java
Using Barcode decoder for Android Control to read, scan PDF 417 image in Android applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Decode 1D In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan 1D image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Scan USS-128 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode recognizer for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan EAN128 image in VS .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
UCC - 12 Decoder In Java
Using Barcode recognizer for Android Control to read, scan EAN 128 image in Android applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Code 39 Extended Decoder In None
Using Barcode reader for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Copyright © OnBarcode.com . All rights reserved.