FUELS FROM BIOMASS in Visual C#

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FUELS FROM BIOMASS
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sugars present in the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of the lignocellulosic feedstock Although engineering technology exists to effectively separate the sugar containing fractions from the lignocellulose, the enzyme technology to economically convert the five-ring sugars to useful products requires further development The construction of both large biofuel and renewable chemical production facilities coupled with the pace at which bioscience is being both developed and applied demonstrates that the utilization of nonfood crops will become more significant in the near term (Bourne, 2007) The biorefinery concept provides a means to significantly reduce production costs such that a substantial substitution of petrochemicals by renewable chemicals becomes possible However, significant technical challenges remain before the biorefinery concept can be realized
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87 THE FUTURE
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To secure a quality life for current and future generations, sufficient land, water, and energy must be available (Pimentel and Pimentel, 2006) By 2030, the world is projected to consume two-thirds more energy than today, with developing countries replacing the industrialized world as the largest group of energy consumers (Dorian et al, 2006) Energy consumption clearly is an important factor in future energy planning In this century, green energy consumption may become an important parameter for indicating social, industrial, economical, and technological development (Ermis et al, 2007) Therefore, the issue is not whether renewable biofuels will play a role in providing energy for transportation but to what extent and the implications of their use for the economy, for the environment, and for global security The rapidly growing interest in biofuels is being fueled by the realization that biofuels represent the only large near-term substitute for the petroleum-based fuels As a result, biofuels are poised to be the potential solution to some very pertinent issues, such as rising oil prices, increasing national and global insecurity, climate instability, and local as well as global pollution levels The method chosen for biofuel production will be determined in part by the characteristics of the biomass available for processing The majority of terrestrial biomass available is typically derived from agricultural plants and from wood grown in forests, as well as from waste residues generated in the processing or use of these resources The primary barrier to utilizing this biomass is generally recognized to be the lack of low-cost processing options capable of converting these polymers into recoverable base chemical components (Lynd et al, 1999) Currently, in the United States, much of the biomass being used for biofuel production includes agricultural crops that are rich in sugars and starch Because of the prevalence of these feedstocks, the majority of US activity toward developing new products has focused on bioconversion (BRDTAC, 2002) Bioconversion isolates sugars from biomass, which can then be processed into value-added products Native sugars found in sugarcane and sugar beet can be easily derived from these plants, and refined in facilities that require the lowest level of capital input Starch, a storage molecule which is a dominant component of cereal crops such as corn and wheat, is comprised wholly of glucose Starch may be subjected to an additional processing in the form of an acid- or enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis step to liberate glucose using a single family of enzymes, the amylases, which makes bioconversion relatively simple Downstream processing of sugars includes traditional fermentation, which uses yeast to produce ethanol; other types of fermentation, including bacterial fermentation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, can produce a variety of other products from the sugar stream
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CHAPTER EIGHT
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Forest biomass or agricultural residues are almost completely comprised of lignocellulosic molecules (wood), a structural matrix that gives the tree or plant strength and form This type of biomass is a prime feedstock for combustion, and indeed remains a major source of energy for the world today (FAO, 2005) The thermal conversion method utilizes pyrolysis and gasification processes to recover heat energy as well as the gaseous components of wood, known as synthesis which can then be refined into synthetic fuels (Chap 7) Lignocellulose is a complex matrix combining cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, along with a variable level of extractives Cellulose is comprised of glucose, a six-carbon sugar, while hemicellulose contains both five- and six-carbon sugars, including glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose The presence of cellulose and hemicellulose therefore makes lignocellulose a potential candidate for bioconversion The ability of the bioconversion platform to isolate these components was initially limited, as the wood matrix is naturally resistant to decomposition Recent advances, however, have made this process more commercially viable and there is added potential for value-added products that can utilize the lignin component of the wood The most fundamental issues for the bioconversion platform include improving the effectiveness of the pretreatment stage, decreasing the cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis stage, and improving overall process efficiencies by capitalizing on synergies between various process stages There is also a need to improve process economics by creating coproducts that can add revenue to the process This type of application is a logical step on the path toward greater process efficiencies and increased energy self-generation These types of systems could also provide surplus bioenergy, becoming an additional revenue stream Greenhouse gas production associated with lignocellulosic-based feedstocks is anticipated to be much lower than with conventional fuels The environmental performance depends very much on the specific life cycle of the fuel, including the feedstock on which the fuel is based and the technology employed (VIEWLS, 2005) The recent proliferation of global biofuel programs is due to several factors, not the least of which is high oil prices Other factors, such as concern about (a) political instability in oil-exporting countries, (b) various countries seeking to bolster their agricultural industries, (c) climate-altering greenhouse gas emissions, and (d) urban air pollution are of equal importance depending upon the country under study Continuing developments in biorefining technology have also brought greater attention to biofuels as a potentially large-scale and environmentally sustainable fuel However, the potential benefits of biofuels will only be realized if environmentally sustainable technologies are employed Under the correct stewardship, the technologies described above will make it possible to produce biofuels from agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as from nonfood crops such as switchgrass that can be grown on degraded lands (Bourne, 2007) Another potential benefit of biofuels is the role they could play in reducing the threat of global climate change The transportation sector is responsible for about one-quarter of global energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and that share is rising Biofuels offer an option for reducing the demand for oil and associated transport-related warming emissions However, the overall climate impacts of biofuels will depend upon several factors, the most important being changes in land use, choice of feedstock, and the various management practices Nevertheless, the greatest potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions lies in the development of next-generation biofuel feedstocks and the associated technologies from conversion of these feedstocks to energy (Worldwatch Institute, 2006; Bourne, 2007)
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