FUELS FROM CROPS in C#

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FUELS FROM CROPS
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fuel containing 20 percent biodiesel is labeled B20 Pure biodiesel is referred to as B100 Blends of 20 percent biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel (B20) can generally be used in unmodified diesel engines Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100), but may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems Biodiesel has about 5 to 8 percent less energy density, but better lubricity and more complete combustion can make the energy output of a diesel engine only 2 percent less per volume when compared to petrodiesel or about 35 MJ/L
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957 Technical Standards The common international standard for biodiesel is EN 14214 while ASTM D6751 is the most common standard referenced in the United States and Canada In Germany, the requirements for biodiesel are fixed in the DIN EN 14214 standard and in the UK the requirements for biodiesel is fixed in the BS EN 14214 standard, although these last two standards are essentially the same as EN 14214 and are just prefixed with the respective national standards institution codes There are standards for three different varieties of biodiesel, which are made of different oils: (a) RME, rapeseed methyl ester, DIN E51606, (b) PME, vegetable methyl ester, purely vegetable products, DIN E51606), and (c) FME, fat methyl ester, vegetable and animal products, according to DIN V51606 The standards ensure that the following important factors in the fuel production process are satisfied: (a) complete reaction, (b) removal of glycerin, (c) removal of catalyst, (d) removal of alcohol, (e) absence of free fatty acids, and (f) low sulfur content Basic industrial tests to determine whether the products conform to the standards typically include gas chromatography, a test that verifies only the more important of the variables above Tests that are more complete are more expensive Fuel meeting the quality standards is very nontoxic, with a toxicity rating (LD50) of greater than 50 mL/kg
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958 Uses Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most modern diesel engines Biodiesel will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses in vehicles (mostly found in vehicles manufactured before 1992), although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will have already been replaced to gaskets that are nonreactive to biodiesel The higher lubricity index of biodiesel compared to petrodiesel is an advantage and can contribute to longer fuel injector life However, biodiesel is a better solvent than petrodiesel, and has been known to break down deposits of residue in the fuel lines of vehicles that have previously been run on petrodiesel As a result, fuel filters and injectors may become clogged with particulates if a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made, as biodiesel cleans the engine in the process Pure, nonblended biodiesel can be poured straight into the tank of any diesel vehicle As with normal diesel, low-temperature biodiesel is sold during winter months to prevent viscosity problems Some older diesel engines still have natural rubber parts which will be affected by biodiesel The temperature at which pure (B100) biodiesel starts to gel varies significantly and depends upon the mix of esters and therefore the feedstock oil used to produce the biodiesel For example, biodiesel produced from low erucic acid varieties of canola seed (RME) starts to gel at approximately 10 C Biodiesel produced from tallow tends to gel at around +16 C As of 2006, there are a very limited number of products that will significantly lower the gel point of straight biodiesel Winter operation is possible with biodiesel blended with
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CHAPTER NINE
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other fuel oils including #2 low sulfur diesel fuel and #1 diesel/kerosene but the exact blend depends on the operating environment Biodiesel may contain small but problematic quantities of water Although it is hydrophobic (nonmiscible with water molecules), there are indications that biodiesel, it is said to be, at the same time, is hygroscopic to the point of attracting water molecules from atmospheric moisture In addition, there may be water that is residual to processing or resulting from storage tank condensation The presence of water is a problem because: (a) water reduces the heat of combustion of the bulk fuel which means more smoke, harder starting, less power, (b) water causes corrosion of vital fuel system components: fuel pumps, injector pumps, and fuel lines, (c) water freezes to form ice crystals at 0 C (32 F) and the crystals provide sites for nucleation and accelerate the gelling of the residual fuel, and (d) water accelerates the growth of microbe colonies, which can plug up a fuel system so biodiesel users who have heated fuel tanks therefore face a year-round microbe problem Chemically, transesterified biodiesel comprises a mix of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids The most common form uses methanol to produce methyl esters as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used Using alcohols of higher molecular weights improves the cold flow properties of the resulting ester, at the cost of a less efficient transesterification reaction A lipid transesterification production process is used to convert the base oil to the desired esters Any free fatty acids in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are esterified (yielding more biodiesel) using an acidic catalyst After this processing, unlike straight vegetable oil, biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to those of petroleum diesel, and can replace it in most current uses A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol For every unit of biodiesel that is manufactured, 01 unit of glycerol is produced Originally, there was a valuable market for the glycerol, which assisted the economics of the process as a whole However, with the increase in global biodiesel production, the market price for this crude glycerol (containing 20 percent water and catalyst residues) is lower and affords an operational challenge Usually the crude glycerol has to be purified, typically by performing vacuum distillation after which the refined glycerol (of more than 98 percent purity) can then be utilized directly, or converted into other products The extra lubrication provided by biodiesel fuel helps improve the longevity of your engine, as well as boosting engine performance, also helping eliminate engine knocks and noise In addition, biodiesel fuel can be stored in any type of tank and has a much higher flash point (approximately 300 C) compared to petrodiesel approximately (150 C)
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