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TABLE 102 FUELWOOD
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Estimated World Total Wood Fuels Consumption, 2002 Million tonnes 441 121 111 671 58 6 1411 Million tonnes of charcoal 15 2 7 5 1 0 29 Million m3 609 167 153 925 81 9 1946 Million m3 wood* 89 12 42 29 4 0 176 PJ 6088 1673 1528 9254 806 86 19458 Million toe 1454 400 365 2210 192 20 4647 % 313 86 79 476 41 04 1000
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Africa North and Central America South America Asia Europe Oceania Total World
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CHARCOAL Africa North and Central America South America Asia Europe Oceania Total World
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PJ 453 64 211 145 23 1 897
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Million toe 108 15 51 35 05 00 214
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% 505 71 236 162 25 01 1000
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* Estimated amount of wood used for charcoal production BLACK LIQUOR Africa North and Central America South America Asia Europe Oceania Total World TOTAL WOOD FUELS Africa North and Central America South America Asia Europe Oceania Total World Million m3 wood equivalent No data 160 60 41 59 3 323 Million tonnes PJ No data 1599 601 414 592 29 3234 Million m3 698 340 255 995 144 12 2443 PJ 6541 3335 2341 9812 1420 115 23589 Million toe No data 382 144 99 141 07 773 Million toe 1562 797 560 2344 338 27 5634 % No data 494 186 128 183 09 1000 % 277 141 99 416 60 05 1000
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Note: Total World figures include small amounts for Middle East
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and power production Almost all this industry s energy needs are met by black liquors, with surplus electricity being sold to the public grid in some cases About 50 percent of black liquor consumption takes place in North America, followed by Europe and South America, both with about 19 percent, and Asia with 13 percent Some industry associations are also making special voluntary contributions to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and increase the use of wood-based energy For instance, the European paper industry aims to achieve an approximately 25 percent increase in the amount
CHAPTER TEN
of wood fuel used for on-site heat and power production by 2010, and increase the share of wood in its on-site total primary energy consumption from 49 to 56 percent In other words, energy will be the main product of the forests, and energy and environmental policies which have been enacted present new opportunities for its further development A combination of factors such as higher oil prices and technological developments in wood fuel production, transportation, and combustion is also making wood fuels more attractive The dynamics of wood fuel flows are complex and very site-specific The development of sustainable wood energy systems remains one of the most critical issues to be addressed by policy makers and community planners With society giving increasing attention to sustainability issues, in the case of wood energy in both developing and developed countries, economical, environmental, and social issues deserve particular attention Most of the uses of wood are accounted for by combustion in intermediate or large-scale units outside the forest industries (eg, in schools, hospitals, barracks, or district-heating plants), with minor volumes going to the production of charcoal Very small volumes were used in a few European countries to generate electricity or to manufacture solid fuels (eg, briquettes) No wood is used at present in the region to make synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels Use of energy wood by the forest industries and users has grown faster than use by households The technical platform chosen for biofuel production is determined in part by the characteristics of the biomass available for processing The majority of terrestrial biomass available is typically derived from agricultural plants and from wood grown in forests, as well as from waste residues generated in the processing or use of these resources Currently, the primary barrier to utilizing this biomass is generally recognized to be the lack of low-cost processing options capable of converting these polymers into recoverable base chemical components (Lynd et al, 1999) In the United States, much of the biomass being used for first-generation biofuel production includes agricultural crops that are rich in sugars and starch Because of the prevalence of these feedstocks, the majority of activity toward developing new products has focused on the bioconversion platform (BRDTAC, 2002a) Bioconversion isolates sugars from biomass, which can then be processed into value-added products Native sugars found in sugarcane and sugar beet can be easily derived from these plants, and refined in facilities that require the lowest level of capital input Starch, a storage molecule which is a dominant component of cereal crops such as corn and wheat, is comprised wholly of glucose Starch may be subjected to an additional processing in the form of an acid- or enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis step to liberate glucose using a single family of enzymes, the amylases, which makes bioconversion relatively simple Downstream processing of sugars includes traditional fermentation, which uses yeast to produce ethanol; other types of fermentation, including bacterial fermentation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, can produce a variety of other products from the sugar stream In order to incorporate all aspects of biofuel production, including the value of coproducts and the potential of the industry to diversify their product offering, we employ the biorefinery concept The biorefinery concept is important because it offers many potential environment-, economy-, and security-related benefits to our society Biorefineries provide the option of coproducing high-value, low-volume products for niche markets together with lower-value commodity products, such as industrial platform chemicals, fuels, or energy, which offsets the higher costs that are associated with processing lignocellulose (Keller 1996, BRDTAC 2002b)
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