FUELS FROM WOOD in C#

Decode Code 128 in C# FUELS FROM WOOD

FUELS FROM WOOD
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(Enecon, 2002) Methanol was the first fuel from wood and is often called wood alcohol Ethanol has been the focus of research at the Forest Products Laboratory There has been little attention to diesel fuel from wood, although there has been some research on production from synthesis gas and through utilization of extractable materials from wood The United States accounts for about 23 percent of the world s emissions of carbon dioxide Of the United States sources of carbon dioxide, electric power accounted for 35 percent, transportation 30 percent, industry 24 percent, and residences 11 percent Obviously, if we re to do our share in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, we should consider making a change in using more non-fossil fuels The transportation industry is based almost totally on the use of liquid fossil fuels and measures are under consideration to reduce this consumption Liquid fuels that could be suitable for use in transportation vehicles have been made from wood for a long time Methanol was commonly called wood alcohol, and this term is still used Cellulose which is the largest wood component could be dissolved in concentrated acid solutions and converted to sugar, a precursor for making ethanol A dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis process was used to make ethanol during World War I and wood hydrolysis received considerable attention in Europe during the period between the World Wars I and II Wood hydrolysis plants continue to operate in Russia However, methanol and ethanol are not the only transportation fuels that might be made from wood A number of possibilities exist for producing alternatives The most promising biomass fuels, and closest to being competitive in current markets without subsidy, are (a) ethanol, (b) methanol, (c) ethyl-t-butyl ether, and (d) methyl-t-butyl ether Other candidates include isopropyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, t-butyl alcohol, mixed alcohols, and t-amyl methyl ether Ethanol or grain alcohol is not restricted to grain as a feedstock It can be produced from other agricultural crops and ligno-cellulose compounds such as wood It has often been advocated as a motor fuel, and has been used frequently in times of gasoline scarcity Today Brazil is the only country that uses large quantities of ethanol as a motor fuel, but even in the United States we use close to a billion gallons per year In Brazil, 95 percent alcohol is used as a neat fuel or anhydrous ethanol is used in admixture with gasoline In the United States we use anhydrous ethanol in mixtures of 10 percent ethanol with 90 percent gasoline The high cost of ethanol production in comparison to gasoline is a major disadvantage, and in the United States only subsidies for biomass ethanol make it competitive However, because of the perceived ability of ethanol and other oxygenated fuels including alcohols and ethers to reduce air pollution in 90 percent carbon monoxide and ozone nonattainment areas in the United States, the cost disadvantage may become secondary, at least in these areas Other reasons for considering fuels alternative to petroleum include energy security within national borders, balance of trade, and tax policies Another possibility for oxygenated fuels is methanol Methanol could conceivably be made from grain, but its most common source is natural gas Use of natural gas is better for reducing carbon dioxide production in comparison to other fossil fuels, but use of renewable fuels instead of natural gas would be still better It can be made from coal or wood with more difficulty and lower efficiency than from natural gas Methanol has long been used as the fuel for race cars at Indianapolis and some other race tracks, not only because of its clean-burning characteristics, but also because of its efficiency, low tire hazard, and high octane rating High octane rating is characteristic of all oxygenated fuels, including ethanol, methanol, ethyl-t-butyl ether, and methyl-t-butyl ether A large part of the success of ethanol from grain in the current United States mix of motor fuels is due to its ability to raise octane rating in a 10 percent mixture of ethanol with 90 percent gasoline However, it is the recent phenomenal growth in the use of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) as an octane enhancer that has captured worldwide attention Methyl-t-butyl ether is made by reacting isobutylene
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